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Sustainability 2015, 7(5), 5120-5138; doi:10.3390/su7055120

Labor Union Effects on Innovation and Commercialization Productivity: An Integrated Propensity Score Matching and Two-Stage Data Envelopment Analysis

1
Policy Development Team, Division of Policy and Cooperation, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology (KRICT), Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-600, Korea
2
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 291, Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Rachel J. C. Chen
Received: 30 November 2014 / Revised: 2 April 2015 / Accepted: 21 April 2015 / Published: 27 April 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Business and Development)
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Abstract

Research and development (R&D) is a critical factor in sustaining a firm’s competitive advantage. Accurate measurement of R&D productivity and investigation of its influencing factors are of value for R&D productivity improvements. This study is divided into two sections. The first section outlines the innovation and commercialization stages of firm-level R&D activities. This section analyzes the productivity of each stage using a propensity score matching (PSM) and two-stage data envelopment analysis (DEA) integrated model to solve the selection bias problem. Second, this study conducts a comparative analysis among subgroups categorized as labor unionized or non-labor unionized on productivity at each stage. We used Korea Innovation Survey (KIS) data for analysis using a sample of 400 Korean manufacturers. The key findings of this study include: (1) firm innovation and commercialization productivity are balanced and show relatively low innovation productivity; and (2) labor unions have a positive effect on commercialization productivity. Moreover, labor unions are an influential factor in determining manufacturing firms’ commercialization productivity. View Full-Text
Keywords: innovation productivity; commercialization productivity; propensity score matching (PSM); two-stage data envelopment analysis (DEA) model; labor union; Korea Innovation Survey innovation productivity; commercialization productivity; propensity score matching (PSM); two-stage data envelopment analysis (DEA) model; labor union; Korea Innovation Survey
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Chun, D.; Chung, Y.; Woo, C.; Seo, H.; Ko, H. Labor Union Effects on Innovation and Commercialization Productivity: An Integrated Propensity Score Matching and Two-Stage Data Envelopment Analysis. Sustainability 2015, 7, 5120-5138.

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