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Sustainability 2014, 6(7), 4558-4579; doi:10.3390/su6074558

Changing Urban Form and Transport CO2 Emissions: An Empirical Analysis of Beijing, China

1
State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, Beijing Normal University, 19 Xinjiekouwai Street, Beijing 100875, China
2
International Research Center for Sustainable Transport and Cities, Nagoya University, C1-2(651) Furo-cho, Nagoya 4648603, Japan
3
College of Global Change and Earth System Science, Beijing Normal University, 19 Xinjiekouwai Street, Beijing 100875, China
4
College of Resources Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, 19 Xinjiekouwai Street, Beijing 100875, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 May 2014 / Revised: 30 June 2014 / Accepted: 14 July 2014 / Published: 22 July 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Cities)
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Abstract

Decentralization development and changing urban form will increase the mobility and contribute to global CO2 emissions, in particular for developing countries which are experiencing rapid economic growth and urban expansion. In this paper, an integrated analytical framework, which can quantify the impact of changing urban form on commuting CO2 emissions, is presented. This framework simultaneously considers two emission dependent factors, commuting demand and modal share based on the concept of excess commuting and accessibility analysis, and ensures its applicability to other cities where the detailed individual travel data is not available. A case study of Beijing from 2000 to 2009 is used to illustrate this framework. The findings suggest that changing urban form in Beijing did have a significant impact on commuting CO2 emission increase. Changing to a more decentralized urban form in Beijing had a larger impact on commuting distance and increased usage of cars, which resulted in a significant rise in CO2 emissions. There is a larger space and an urgent need for commuting CO2 emission reduction, in 2009 in Beijing, by planning and by strategic measures in order to promote sustainable transport. View Full-Text
Keywords: decentralization; changing urban form; CO2 emissions; excess commuting; accessibility; modal share; sustainable transport decentralization; changing urban form; CO2 emissions; excess commuting; accessibility; modal share; sustainable transport
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Wang, Y.; Hayashi, Y.; Chen, J.; Li, Q. Changing Urban Form and Transport CO2 Emissions: An Empirical Analysis of Beijing, China. Sustainability 2014, 6, 4558-4579.

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