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Sustainability 2014, 6(3), 1346-1358; doi:10.3390/su6031346
Article

Improving the Effectiveness of a Nutrient Removal System Composed of Microalgae and Daphnia by an Artificial Illumination

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Received: 20 December 2013; in revised form: 27 February 2014 / Accepted: 5 March 2014 / Published: 12 March 2014
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Abstract: For determining the effect of illumination on nutrient removal in an artificial food web (AFW) system, we launched a pilot continuous-flow system. The system consisted of a storage basin, a phytoplankton growth chamber, and a zooplankton growth chamber. A 25,000 Lux AFW-light emitting diode (LED) on system and an AFW-LED off system were separately operated for 10 days. In the AFW-LED on system, the maximum chlorophyll-a concentration of the phytoplankton chamber was four times higher than that of the AFW-LED off system. With artificial nighttime illumination, the microalgae became both smaller and more nutritious; the microalgae became high quality food for the zooplankton, Daphnia magna. Consequently, this zooplankton became more efficient at extracting nutrients and grew more densely than in the AFW-LED off system condition. In the LED-on condition, the amounts of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) flowing into the system for 10 days were 84.7 g and 20.4 g, and the amounts flowing out were 19.5 g (23%) and 4.0 g (20%), respectively. In contrast, in the LED-off condition, 83.8 g and 20.6 g of TN and TP flowed into the system while 38.8 g (46%) and 6.8 g (33%) flowed out, respectively. Artificial illumination significantly improves the removal rate of nutrients in an AFW system.
Keywords: artificial food web system; nutrient removal; artificial illumination; light-emitting diode; phytoplankton; zooplankton; ecological engineering artificial food web system; nutrient removal; artificial illumination; light-emitting diode; phytoplankton; zooplankton; ecological engineering
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Chang, I.-H.; Jung, D.; Ahn, T.S. Improving the Effectiveness of a Nutrient Removal System Composed of Microalgae and Daphnia by an Artificial Illumination. Sustainability 2014, 6, 1346-1358.

AMA Style

Chang I-H, Jung D, Ahn TS. Improving the Effectiveness of a Nutrient Removal System Composed of Microalgae and Daphnia by an Artificial Illumination. Sustainability. 2014; 6(3):1346-1358.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chang, In-Ho; Jung, Dawoon; Ahn, Tae S. 2014. "Improving the Effectiveness of a Nutrient Removal System Composed of Microalgae and Daphnia by an Artificial Illumination." Sustainability 6, no. 3: 1346-1358.


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