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Sustainability 2014, 6(3), 1346-1358; doi:10.3390/su6031346
Article

Improving the Effectiveness of a Nutrient Removal System Composed of Microalgae and Daphnia by an Artificial Illumination

,
 and
*
Department of Environmental Science, Kangwon National University, 313 Natural Science Building 2, Chuncheon, 200-701, Kangwon-do, Korea
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 December 2013 / Revised: 27 February 2014 / Accepted: 5 March 2014 / Published: 12 March 2014
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Abstract

For determining the effect of illumination on nutrient removal in an artificial food web (AFW) system, we launched a pilot continuous-flow system. The system consisted of a storage basin, a phytoplankton growth chamber, and a zooplankton growth chamber. A 25,000 Lux AFW-light emitting diode (LED) on system and an AFW-LED off system were separately operated for 10 days. In the AFW-LED on system, the maximum chlorophyll-a concentration of the phytoplankton chamber was four times higher than that of the AFW-LED off system. With artificial nighttime illumination, the microalgae became both smaller and more nutritious; the microalgae became high quality food for the zooplankton, Daphnia magna. Consequently, this zooplankton became more efficient at extracting nutrients and grew more densely than in the AFW-LED off system condition. In the LED-on condition, the amounts of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) flowing into the system for 10 days were 84.7 g and 20.4 g, and the amounts flowing out were 19.5 g (23%) and 4.0 g (20%), respectively. In contrast, in the LED-off condition, 83.8 g and 20.6 g of TN and TP flowed into the system while 38.8 g (46%) and 6.8 g (33%) flowed out, respectively. Artificial illumination significantly improves the removal rate of nutrients in an AFW system.
Keywords: artificial food web system; nutrient removal; artificial illumination; light-emitting diode; phytoplankton; zooplankton; ecological engineering artificial food web system; nutrient removal; artificial illumination; light-emitting diode; phytoplankton; zooplankton; ecological engineering
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).
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Chang, I.-H.; Jung, D.; Ahn, T.S. Improving the Effectiveness of a Nutrient Removal System Composed of Microalgae and Daphnia by an Artificial Illumination. Sustainability 2014, 6, 1346-1358.

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