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Sustainability 2014, 6(12), 8756-8774; doi:10.3390/su6128756

Environmental Justice and Sustainability Impact Assessment: In Search of Solutions to Ethnic Conflicts Caused by Coal Mining in Inner Mongolia, China

1
Geography Program, School of Environmental, Physical & Applied Sciences, University of Central Missouri, Warrensburg, MO 64093, USA
2
Jilin Province Environmental Monitoring Center, 2063 Tailai St, Changchun 130011, China
3
College of Economics and Management, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian 130011, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 July 2014 / Revised: 2 October 2014 / Accepted: 20 October 2014 / Published: 1 December 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in China: Bridging Global Knowledge with Local Action)
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Abstract

The Chinese government adopted more specific and stringent environmental impact assessment (EIA) guidelines in 2011, soon after the widespread ethnic protests against coal mining in Inner Mongolia. However, our research suggests that the root of the ethnic tension is a sustainability problem, in addition to environmental issues. In particular, the Mongolians do not feel they have benefited from the mining of their resources. Existing environmental assessment tools are inadequate to address sustainability, which is concerned with environmental protection, social justice and economic equity. Thus, it is necessary to develop a sustainability impact assessment (SIA) to fill in the gap. SIA would be in theory and practice a better tool than EIA for assessing sustainability impact. However, China’s political system presents a major challenge to promoting social and economic equity. Another practical challenge for SIA is corruption which has been also responsible for the failing of EIA in assessing environmental impacts of coal mining in Inner Mongolia. Under the current political system, China should adopt the SIA while continuing its fight against corruption. View Full-Text
Keywords: environmental impact assessment; sustainability impact assessment; environmental justice; public participation; ethnic conflict; China environmental impact assessment; sustainability impact assessment; environmental justice; public participation; ethnic conflict; China
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Liu, L.; Liu, J.; Zhang, Z. Environmental Justice and Sustainability Impact Assessment: In Search of Solutions to Ethnic Conflicts Caused by Coal Mining in Inner Mongolia, China. Sustainability 2014, 6, 8756-8774.

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