Sustainability 2011, 3(8), 1265-1281; doi:10.3390/su3081265
Review

Benefits and Costs of Biologically Contained Genetically Modified Tomatoes and Eggplants in Italy and Spain

Received: 22 April 2011; in revised form: 22 June 2011 / Accepted: 12 August 2011 / Published: 22 August 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biotechnology and Sustainable Development)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: In this paper we assess the benefits and costs of introducing biologically contained genetically modified (GM) crops, with an application to the potential introduction of GM tomatoes and eggplants in Italy and Spain. Such crops possess both the standard beneficial GM traits, and they prevent introgression of transgenes from GM crops to their conventional or wild relatives, thereby adding to the safety of their cultivation. As a result, coexistence regulations for these crops are less stringent than for crops without biological containment. The potential adoption of biologically contained GM tomatoes and eggplants is assessed in a cost-benefit framework for Italy and Spain. We conclude that biological containment has considerable potential benefits if policy makers are willing to loosen the restrictions on the introduction of these varieties.
Keywords: tomato; eggplant; genetic modification; coexistence; biological containment; economics
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MDPI and ACS Style

Groeneveld, R.A.; Ansink, E.; Van de Wiel, C.C.; Wesseler, J. Benefits and Costs of Biologically Contained Genetically Modified Tomatoes and Eggplants in Italy and Spain. Sustainability 2011, 3, 1265-1281.

AMA Style

Groeneveld RA, Ansink E, Van de Wiel CC, Wesseler J. Benefits and Costs of Biologically Contained Genetically Modified Tomatoes and Eggplants in Italy and Spain. Sustainability. 2011; 3(8):1265-1281.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Groeneveld, Rolf A.; Ansink, Erik; Van de Wiel, Clemens C.M.; Wesseler, Justus. 2011. "Benefits and Costs of Biologically Contained Genetically Modified Tomatoes and Eggplants in Italy and Spain." Sustainability 3, no. 8: 1265-1281.

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