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Benefits and Costs of Biologically Contained Genetically Modified Tomatoes and Eggplants in Italy and Spain
Wageningen University, Environmental Economics and Natural Resources Group, Hollandseweg 1, Wageningen 6706 KN, The Netherlands
VU University Amsterdam, Institute for Environmental Studies, De Boelelaan 1087, Amsterdam 1081 HV, The Netherlands
WUR Plant Breeding, Droevendaalsesteeg 1, Wageningen 6708 PB, The Netherlands
Chair Group Agricultural and Food Economics, Center of Life and Food Sciences Weihenstephan, Technische Universität München, Weihenstephaner Steig 22, Freising 85354, Germany
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 April 2011; in revised form: 22 June 2011 / Accepted: 12 August 2011 / Published: 22 August 2011
Abstract: In this paper we assess the benefits and costs of introducing biologically contained genetically modified (GM) crops, with an application to the potential introduction of GM tomatoes and eggplants in Italy and Spain. Such crops possess both the standard beneficial GM traits, and they prevent introgression of transgenes from GM crops to their conventional or wild relatives, thereby adding to the safety of their cultivation. As a result, coexistence regulations for these crops are less stringent than for crops without biological containment. The potential adoption of biologically contained GM tomatoes and eggplants is assessed in a cost-benefit framework for Italy and Spain. We conclude that biological containment has considerable potential benefits if policy makers are willing to loosen the restrictions on the introduction of these varieties.
Keywords: tomato; eggplant; genetic modification; coexistence; biological containment; economics
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MDPI and ACS Style
Groeneveld, R.A.; Ansink, E.; Van de Wiel, C.C.; Wesseler, J. Benefits and Costs of Biologically Contained Genetically Modified Tomatoes and Eggplants in Italy and Spain. Sustainability 2011, 3, 1265-1281.
Groeneveld RA, Ansink E, Van de Wiel CC, Wesseler J. Benefits and Costs of Biologically Contained Genetically Modified Tomatoes and Eggplants in Italy and Spain. Sustainability. 2011; 3(8):1265-1281.
Groeneveld, Rolf A.; Ansink, Erik; Van de Wiel, Clemens C.M.; Wesseler, Justus. 2011. "Benefits and Costs of Biologically Contained Genetically Modified Tomatoes and Eggplants in Italy and Spain." Sustainability 3, no. 8: 1265-1281.