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Sustainability 2018, 10(3), 664; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10030664

Achieving Highly Efficient Atmospheric CO2 Uptake by Artificial Upwelling

1
Department of Ocean Science, Zhejiang University, Zhoushan 316021, China
2
Department of Ocean Engineering, Zhejiang University, Zhoushan 316021, China
3
Department of Oceanography, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 December 2017 / Revised: 20 February 2018 / Accepted: 20 February 2018 / Published: 1 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Carbon Cycles)
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Abstract

Artificial upwelling (AU) is considered a potential means of reducing the accumulation of anthropogenic CO2. It has been suggested that AU has significant effects on regional carbon sink or source characteristics, and these effects are strongly influenced by certain technical parameters, the applied region, and the season. In this study, we simulated the power needed to raise the level of deep ocean water (DOW) to designated plume trapping depths in order to evaluate the effect of changing the source DOW depth and the plume trapping depth on carbon sequestration ability and efficiency. A carbon sequestration efficiency index (CSEI) was defined to indicate the carbon sequestration efficiency per unit of power consumption. The results suggested that the CSEI and the carbon sequestration ability exhibit opposite patterns when the DOW depth is increased, indicating that, although raising a lower DOW level can enhance the regional carbon sequestration ability, it is not energy-efficient. Large variations in the CSEI were shown to be associated with different regions, seasons, and AU technical parameters. According to the simulated CSEI values, the northeast past of the Sea of Japan is most suitable for AU, and some regions in the South China Sea are not suitable for increasing carbon sink. View Full-Text
Keywords: artificial upwelling; air-lift pump; carbon sequestration efficiency index; power consumption; anthropogenic CO2 artificial upwelling; air-lift pump; carbon sequestration efficiency index; power consumption; anthropogenic CO2
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Pan, Y.; You, L.; Li, Y.; Fan, W.; Chen, C.-T.A.; Wang, B.-J.; Chen, Y. Achieving Highly Efficient Atmospheric CO2 Uptake by Artificial Upwelling. Sustainability 2018, 10, 664.

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