E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Special Issue "Marine Carbon Cycles"

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Sustainable Use of the Environment and Resources".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2017)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Chen-Tung Arthur Chen

Department of Oceanography, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan
Website | E-Mail
Interests: carbon cycle; ocean acidification; global change; land-ocean interactions; hydrothermal activities
Guest Editor
Prof. Xuelu Gao

Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai, Shandong 264003, China
Website | E-Mail
Interests: trace metals; organic carbon; marine pollution; environmental quality
Guest Editor
Prof. Louis Lebel

Unit for Social and Environmental Research, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand
Website | E-Mail
Interests: environmental management; blue carbon; global change; policy and politics; land-ocean interactions; aquaculture
Guest Editor
Prof. Joji Ishizaka

Division for Land-Ocean Ecosystem Research, Institute for Space-Earth Environmental Research (ISEE), Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8601, Japan
Website | E-Mail
Interests: phytoplankton ecology; primary productivity; remote sensing; ocean trophic level (food web)

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

As the largest carbon reservoir on the Earth’s surface, the ocean plays a vital role in regulating the world’s climate. Roughly one-third of the anthropogenic CO2 emitted since 1800 has entered the oceans in the form of inorganic carbon. There is now 50 times as much dissolved CO2 in the oceans as CO2 in the atmosphere. Perhaps one-third of the total anthropogenic CO2 that might potentially be stored in the ocean in the longer-term has already been stored. Phytoplankton in the open oceans and vegetated coastal ecosystems such as mangroves, seagrass beds and salt marshes are also highly efficient carbon sinks, hence the term ‘blue carbon’.

Research over the past few decades has greatly expanded the science of the marine carbon cycle. Now the main processes of carbon movement within the marine systems have been elucidated, the accuracy of the carbon budget has increased, and the challenges to a sustainable ocean carbon cycle are better understood. Yet, more secrets are awaiting to be discovered and shared.

We invite investigators to contribute original research as well as review articles that deal with documentation and interpretation of the scope of marine carbon cycles. This includes, but is not limited to, consideration of the underlying physical and biogeochemical carbon-involved processes driving environmental, geochemical, ecological and biological changes, responses, and sustainability of the oceans. Environments of interest include any geographical divisions from coastal seas to deep oceans. Theoretical and fundamental subject areas of research (e.g., new research area as well as modeling, mitigation strategies and policy making related to ocean acidification, time series, geoengineering, submarine groundwater discharge, and blue carbon) are welcome.

Prof. Chen-Tung Arthur Chen
Prof. Xuelu Gao
Prof. Louis Lebel
Prof. Joji Ishizaka
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • marine carbon cycle
  • ocean acidification
  • remote sensing
  • submarine groundwater discharge
  • bule carbon
  • marine ecosystems
  • mitigation strategies
  • policy making
  • geoengineering

Published Papers (11 papers)

View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-11
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Organic Carbon Concentrations in High- and Low-Productivity Areas of the Sulu Sea
Sustainability 2018, 10(6), 1867; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10061867
Received: 2 February 2018 / Revised: 28 May 2018 / Accepted: 31 May 2018 / Published: 4 June 2018
PDF Full-text (5503 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The sequestration of anthropogenic carbon dioxide in the form of organic carbon and its eventual deposition in the sediments is an important component of the marine carbon cycle. In the Sulu Sea, Philippines, organic carbon contents in the sediments have been relatively well
[...] Read more.
The sequestration of anthropogenic carbon dioxide in the form of organic carbon and its eventual deposition in the sediments is an important component of the marine carbon cycle. In the Sulu Sea, Philippines, organic carbon contents in the sediments have been relatively well studied, but the processes that describe the organic carbon distributions in the water column have not been elucidated. Dissolved and particulate organic carbon (DOC, POC) concentrations were measured at several stations in the Sulu Sea during the northeast monsoon of 2007/2008 to understand the dynamics of organic carbon in this unique internal sea. Analyses of primary productivity estimates, beam attenuation coefficient (at 660 nm) profiles, and correlation coefficients among DOC, POC and other parameters (e.g., apparent oxygen utilization) at different layers of the water column indicate that surface primary productivity, upwelling, bottom intensified flows across sills, and ventilation from shallow sills, which may contain semi-labile DOC that is estimated to largely contribute to microbial respiration in the bathypelagic layer, are the major processes that affect the DOC and POC distributions in the Sulu Sea. The variability of these processes should be taken into consideration when assessing the sustainability of internal and marginal seas as carbon sinks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Carbon Cycles)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Seasonal Variations of Dissolved Organic Matter in the East China Sea Using EEM-PARAFAC and Implications for Carbon and Nutrient Cycling
Sustainability 2018, 10(5), 1444; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10051444
Received: 2 February 2018 / Revised: 4 April 2018 / Accepted: 14 April 2018 / Published: 5 May 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (19851 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Dissolved organic matter (DOM) plays a very important role in the dynamics of different biogeochemical processes in the global marine carbon cycle. Seasonal variations of DOM were investigated using dissolved organic carbon (DOC), absorption spectroscopy, and fluorescence excitation emission matrix–parallel factor analysis (EEM-PARAFAC)
[...] Read more.
Dissolved organic matter (DOM) plays a very important role in the dynamics of different biogeochemical processes in the global marine carbon cycle. Seasonal variations of DOM were investigated using dissolved organic carbon (DOC), absorption spectroscopy, and fluorescence excitation emission matrix–parallel factor analysis (EEM-PARAFAC) in Niushan Island in the East China Sea, off southeast Zhejiang, in winter, spring, and summer 2017. A strong positive correlation between temperature and salinity was observed in winter, whereas negative correlations were obtained in spring and summer. The results suggest that the water in the study area originates from the Changjiang River water coinciding with the direction of winds in winter. On the other hand, the Taiwan Strait water flows northward on the eastern part of the study area in summer and spring. The DOC concentration showed significant seasonal variations and was much lower in summer than in winter, but largely independent of the temperature, degree of absorption and intensity of the fluorescence component. Three tryptophan-like components (C1, C2 and C4) and one humic-like component were identified by the PARAFAC model in winter, while two tryptophan-like components (C1 and C2) and two humic-like components were illustrated in summer. The seasonal variations of DOC concentrations and intensities of the fluorescence components in the study area from winter to summer suggest that the waters in this area were influenced mainly by mixing water of the Changjiang River and the Taiwan Strait. A strongly linear relationship was found between the nutrient and the fluorescence intensities of different components in winter, reflecting the profound impacts of the dynamics of DOM on nutrient cycling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Carbon Cycles)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle An Assessment of Direct Dissolved Inorganic Carbon Injection to the Coastal Region: A Model Result
Sustainability 2018, 10(4), 1174; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10041174
Received: 1 January 2018 / Revised: 2 April 2018 / Accepted: 9 April 2018 / Published: 13 April 2018
PDF Full-text (7324 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere has increased in the past 60 years and the technology of carbon capture and storage (CCS) has recently been extensively studied. One of the strategies of CCS is to directly inject a
[...] Read more.
The amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere has increased in the past 60 years and the technology of carbon capture and storage (CCS) has recently been extensively studied. One of the strategies of CCS is to directly inject a high dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentration (or high partial pressure of carbon dioxide, pCO2) solution into the ocean. However, the carbonate dynamics and air-sea gas exchange are usually neglected in a CCS strategy. This study assesses the effect of a DIC-solution injection by using a simple two end-member model to simulate the variation of pH, DIC, total alkalinity (TA) and pCO2 between the river and sea mixing process for the Danshuei River estuary and Hoping River in Taiwan. We observed that the DIC-solution injection can contribute to ocean acidification and can also lead the pCO2 value to change from being undersaturated to oversaturated (with respect to the atmospheric CO2 level). Our model result also showed that the maximum Revelle factors (Δ[CO2]/[CO2])/(Δ[DIC]/[DIC]) among varied pH values (6–9) and DIC concentrations (0.5–3.5 mmol kg−1) were between pH 8.3 and 8.5 in fresh water and were between 7.3 and 7.5 in waters with a salinity of 35, reflecting the changing efficiency of dissolving CO2 gas into the DIC solution and the varying stability of this desired DIC solution. Finally, we suggest this uncoupled Revelle factor between fresh and salty water should be considered in the (anthropogenic) carbonate chemical weathering on a decade to century scale. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Carbon Cycles)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Role of Scirpus mariqueter on Methane Emission from an Intertidal Saltmarsh of Yangtze Estuary
Sustainability 2018, 10(4), 1139; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10041139
Received: 25 December 2017 / Revised: 4 April 2018 / Accepted: 4 April 2018 / Published: 10 April 2018
PDF Full-text (22638 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The role of wetland plant (Scirpus mariqueter) on methane (CH4) emissions from a subtropical tidal saltmarsh of Yangtze estuary was investigated over a year. Monthly CH4 flux and pore-water CH4 concentration were characterized using static closed chamber
[...] Read more.
The role of wetland plant (Scirpus mariqueter) on methane (CH4) emissions from a subtropical tidal saltmarsh of Yangtze estuary was investigated over a year. Monthly CH4 flux and pore-water CH4 concentration were characterized using static closed chamber technique and pore-water extraction. Measured chamber CH4 fluxes indicated that saltmarsh of the Yangtze estuary acted as a net source of atmospheric CH4 with annual average flux of 24.0 mgCH4·m−2·day−1. The maximum chamber CH4 flux was in August (91.2 mgCH4·m−2·day−1), whereas the minimum was observed in March (2.30 mgCH4·m−2·day−1). Calculated diffusion CH4 fluxes were generally less than 6% of the chamber fluxes. Significant correlations were observed between the chamber CH4 flux and rhizospheric pore-water CH4 concentration (11–15 cm: p < 0.05, R = 0.732; 16–20 cm: p < 0.05, R = 0.777). In addition, chamber CH4 fluxes from July to September constituted more than 80% of the total annual emission and were closely correlated with aboveground biomass yield of S. mariqueter. The results indicated that S. mariqueter transportation was the dominant CH4 emission pathway and it provided an efficient route for the belowground CH4 to escape into the atmosphere while avoiding oxidation, leading to CH4 emissions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Carbon Cycles)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Physical Forcing-Driven Productivity and Sediment Flux to the Deep Basin of Northern South China Sea: A Decadal Time Series Study
Sustainability 2018, 10(4), 971; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10040971
Received: 30 January 2018 / Revised: 23 March 2018 / Accepted: 26 March 2018 / Published: 27 March 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (32688 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Understanding the driving forces of absorption of anthropogenic CO2 by the oceans is critical for a sustainable ocean carbon cycle. Decadal sinking particle flux data collected at 1000 m, 2000 m, and 3500 m at the South East Asia Time Series Study
[...] Read more.
Understanding the driving forces of absorption of anthropogenic CO2 by the oceans is critical for a sustainable ocean carbon cycle. Decadal sinking particle flux data collected at 1000 m, 2000 m, and 3500 m at the South East Asia Time Series Study (SEATS) Station (18° N, 116° E), which was located in the northern South China Sea (nSCS), show that the fluxes undergo strong seasonal and interannual variability. Changes in the flux data are correlated with the satellite-derived chlorophyll-a concentration, indicating that the mass fluxes of the sinking particles are largely controlled by the export production at or near the SEATS station. The cooling of seawater and the strengthening of wind in winter increase the nutrient inventories in the euphotic zone, thus also increasing export production in the nSCS. This study reveals that the intrusion of low-nutrient seawater from the West Philippine Sea into the nSCS significantly reduces the productivity, and hence the flux, of sinking particles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Carbon Cycles)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Carbon Chemistry in the Mainstream of Kuroshio Current in Eastern Taiwan and Its Transport of Carbon into the East China Sea Shelf
Sustainability 2018, 10(3), 791; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10030791
Received: 19 January 2018 / Revised: 6 March 2018 / Accepted: 7 March 2018 / Published: 13 March 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (7666 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Comprehensive carbon chemistry data were measured from the mainstream of Kuroshio, off eastern Taiwan, in May 2014. Results indicated that variations of pH@25 °C, POC, ΩCa, DIC, pCO2 and RF were closely related to the characteristics of various water
[...] Read more.
Comprehensive carbon chemistry data were measured from the mainstream of Kuroshio, off eastern Taiwan, in May 2014. Results indicated that variations of pH@25 °C, POC, ΩCa, DIC, pCO2 and RF were closely related to the characteristics of various water types. Phytoplankton photosynthesis played important roles in DIC variation in Kuroshio Surface Water (KSW), whereas the DIC variation in Kuroshio Subsurface Water (KSSW) was probably influenced by the external transport of DIC-enriched water from the South China Sea. Vertical profiles of hydrological parameters and carbonate species indicated that the Kuroshio Current off eastern Taiwan could intrude into the ECS shelf as far as 27.9° E, 125.5° N in spring. What is more, the KSW, KSSW and Kuroshio Intermediate Water (KIW) could convey DIC into the East China Sea (ECS) with flux of 285, 305 and 112 Tg C/half year (1 Tg = 1012 g), respectively. The relevant flux of POC was 0.16, 2.93 and 0.04 Tg C/half year, respectively. Consequently, the intrusion of Kuroshio could probably exert a counteracting influence on the potential of CO2 uptake in the ECS, which needs further study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Carbon Cycles)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Achieving Highly Efficient Atmospheric CO2 Uptake by Artificial Upwelling
Sustainability 2018, 10(3), 664; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10030664
Received: 18 December 2017 / Revised: 20 February 2018 / Accepted: 20 February 2018 / Published: 1 March 2018
PDF Full-text (2490 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Artificial upwelling (AU) is considered a potential means of reducing the accumulation of anthropogenic CO2. It has been suggested that AU has significant effects on regional carbon sink or source characteristics, and these effects are strongly influenced by certain technical parameters,
[...] Read more.
Artificial upwelling (AU) is considered a potential means of reducing the accumulation of anthropogenic CO2. It has been suggested that AU has significant effects on regional carbon sink or source characteristics, and these effects are strongly influenced by certain technical parameters, the applied region, and the season. In this study, we simulated the power needed to raise the level of deep ocean water (DOW) to designated plume trapping depths in order to evaluate the effect of changing the source DOW depth and the plume trapping depth on carbon sequestration ability and efficiency. A carbon sequestration efficiency index (CSEI) was defined to indicate the carbon sequestration efficiency per unit of power consumption. The results suggested that the CSEI and the carbon sequestration ability exhibit opposite patterns when the DOW depth is increased, indicating that, although raising a lower DOW level can enhance the regional carbon sequestration ability, it is not energy-efficient. Large variations in the CSEI were shown to be associated with different regions, seasons, and AU technical parameters. According to the simulated CSEI values, the northeast past of the Sea of Japan is most suitable for AU, and some regions in the South China Sea are not suitable for increasing carbon sink. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Carbon Cycles)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Changes in the Ecological Environment of the Marginal Seas along the Eurasian Continent from 2003 to 2014
Sustainability 2018, 10(3), 635; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10030635
Received: 17 December 2017 / Revised: 6 February 2018 / Accepted: 22 February 2018 / Published: 28 February 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (9309 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Based on time-series satellite-retrieved records of the marine ecological environment from Aqua/MODIS, we investigated changes in the sea surface temperature (SST), photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), Secchi Disc depth (SDD), and chlorophyll-a concentration (Chla) in 12 Eurasian marginal seas from 2003 to 2014. Results
[...] Read more.
Based on time-series satellite-retrieved records of the marine ecological environment from Aqua/MODIS, we investigated changes in the sea surface temperature (SST), photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), Secchi Disc depth (SDD), and chlorophyll-a concentration (Chla) in 12 Eurasian marginal seas from 2003 to 2014. Results showed that the SST increased in all 12 marginal seas, with the enclosed marginal seas (i.e., Black Sea, Baltic Sea, Japan Sea, Mediterranean Sea, and Persian Gulf) exhibiting relatively higher rates of increase. The PAR generally decreased, except in the European marginal seas, though not significantly. Similar to the changes in the SST, the SDD increased in all 12 marginal seas, with a maximum rate of 3.02%/year (or 0.25 m/year, p = 0.0003) found in the Persian Gulf. As expected, Chla generally decreased in the tropical marginal seas, but increased in the high-latitude marginal seas. The different relationships between SST and Chla changes indicate the complexity of global warming effects on marine phytoplankton in different marginal seas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Carbon Cycles)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Significance of Submarine Groundwater Discharge in Nutrient Budgets in Tropical Sanya Bay, China
Sustainability 2018, 10(2), 380; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10020380
Received: 22 December 2017 / Revised: 22 January 2018 / Accepted: 30 January 2018 / Published: 1 February 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2658 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To quantify the contribution of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) to the nutrient budget in tropical embayments, naturally occurring radium isotopes (223Ra, 224Ra, 226Ra, and 228Ra) were investigated as SGD tracers in Sanya Bay, China. Higher activities of radium
[...] Read more.
To quantify the contribution of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) to the nutrient budget in tropical embayments, naturally occurring radium isotopes (223Ra, 224Ra, 226Ra, and 228Ra) were investigated as SGD tracers in Sanya Bay, China. Higher activities of radium were present along the north coast and near the Sanya River estuary. Using the activity ratio of 224Ra/228Ra, the apparent water age in Sanya Bay was estimated to be 0–13.2 days, with an average of 7.2 ± 3.2 days. Based on the mass balance of 226Ra and 228Ra, SGD was calculated to be 2.79 ± 1.39–5.07 ± 2.67 × 106 m3 d−1 (or 4.3 ± 2.1–7.8 ± 4.1 cm d−1). SGD associated dissolved inorganic nutrient fluxes into Sanya Bay were estimated to be 3.94 ± 2.00–7.15 ± 3.85 × 105 mol d−1 for oxidized inorganic nitrogen, 4.64 ± 2.74–8.42 ± 5.19 × 103 mol d−1 for phosphate, and 6.63 ± 3.29–12.0 ± 6.34 × 105 mol d−1 for silicate. The estuarine nutrient flux from the Sanya River was a few times smaller than the phosphate flux via SGD and at least an order of magnitude smaller than the oxidized inorganic nitrogen and silicate fluxes carried by SGD. SGD was also more important than atmospheric deposition and nitrogen fixation in the nutrient budget. Our results demonstrate that SGD compensated for at least 15% phosphate, 90% oxidized inorganic nitrogen, and 60% silicate of the nutrients sink in Sanya Bay. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Carbon Cycles)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Interannual Carbon and Nutrient Fluxes in Southeastern Taiwan Strait
Sustainability 2018, 10(2), 372; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10020372
Received: 2 January 2018 / Revised: 26 January 2018 / Accepted: 26 January 2018 / Published: 31 January 2018
PDF Full-text (3514 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Taiwan Strait (TS) is one of the main sources of phosphate that supports the large fish catches of the phosphate-limited East China Sea (ECS). The Penghu Channel is the deepest part of the TS, and most of the flow of the TS
[...] Read more.
The Taiwan Strait (TS) is one of the main sources of phosphate that supports the large fish catches of the phosphate-limited East China Sea (ECS). The Penghu Channel is the deepest part of the TS, and most of the flow of the TS towards the ECS is principally through this channel. Empirical equations that are based on measurements made during 19 cruises (2000–2011) were combined with water velocity, salinity, and temperature, which were modeled using HYCOM (the Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model) to obtain the annual fluxes for total alkalinity (TA), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), nitrate plus nitrite, phosphate, and silicate fluxes. The TA and DIC are mainly transported in the top layer (0–55 m) because the current is much stronger there than in the bottom layer (55–125 m) whereas the TA and DIC concentrations in the top layer are only slightly smaller compared with the bottom layer. In contrast, the nitrate plus nitrite flux is mainly transported in the bottom layer because the concentrations are much higher in the bottom layer. Generally, nutrient flux increases with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) index, but TA and DIC fluxes increase as the PDO index decreases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Carbon Cycles)
Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Phytoplankton as Key Mediators of the Biological Carbon Pump: Their Responses to a Changing Climate
Sustainability 2018, 10(3), 869; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10030869
Received: 7 January 2018 / Revised: 26 February 2018 / Accepted: 12 March 2018 / Published: 19 March 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1410 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The world’s oceans are a major sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). The biological carbon pump plays a vital role in the net transfer of CO2 from the atmosphere to the oceans and then to the sediments, subsequently maintaining atmospheric
[...] Read more.
The world’s oceans are a major sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). The biological carbon pump plays a vital role in the net transfer of CO2 from the atmosphere to the oceans and then to the sediments, subsequently maintaining atmospheric CO2 at significantly lower levels than would be the case if it did not exist. The efficiency of the biological pump is a function of phytoplankton physiology and community structure, which are in turn governed by the physical and chemical conditions of the ocean. However, only a few studies have focused on the importance of phytoplankton community structure to the biological pump. Because global change is expected to influence carbon and nutrient availability, temperature and light (via stratification), an improved understanding of how phytoplankton community size structure will respond in the future is required to gain insight into the biological pump and the ability of the ocean to act as a long-term sink for atmospheric CO2. This review article aims to explore the potential impacts of predicted changes in global temperature and the carbonate system on phytoplankton cell size, species and elemental composition, so as to shed light on the ability of the biological pump to sequester carbon in the future ocean. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Carbon Cycles)
Figures

Figure 1

Back to Top