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Pharmaceutics 2017, 9(1), 10; doi:10.3390/pharmaceutics9010010

Polypharmacy in Zoological Medicine

1
One Medicine Consulting, Olathe, KS 66062, USA
2
College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 23610, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Arlene McDowell and Yvonne Perrie
Received: 2 December 2016 / Revised: 1 February 2017 / Accepted: 20 February 2017 / Published: 22 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Veterinary Medicine)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [206 KB, uploaded 22 February 2017]

Abstract

Polypharmacy is a term that describes the inappropriate, concurrent use of multiple drugs in an individual patient. Zoological medicine practitioners must take approved agents (veterinary or human) and extrapolate their use to non-approved species often with little species-specific pharmacological evidence to support their decisions. When considering polypharmacy, even less information exists concerning multi-drug pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, or potential drug-drug interactions in non-domestic species. Unfortunately, captive, zoological species are susceptible, just like their domestic counterparts, to chronic diseases and co-morbidities that may lead to the usage of multiple drugs. Polypharmacy is a recognized and important issue in human medicine, as well as an emerging issue for veterinarians; thus, this paper will discuss the novel, potential risks of polypharmacy in zoological medicine. Hopefully, this discussion will help bring the attention of veterinarians to this issue and serve as an interesting discussion topic for pharmacologists in general. View Full-Text
Keywords: polypharmacy; zoological medicine; pharmacology; pharmacokinetics; minor species polypharmacy; zoological medicine; pharmacology; pharmacokinetics; minor species
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Hunter, R.P.; Isaza, R. Polypharmacy in Zoological Medicine. Pharmaceutics 2017, 9, 10.

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