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Pharmaceutics 2016, 8(2), 13; doi:10.3390/pharmaceutics8020013

Timing of Administration: For Commonly-Prescribed Medicines in Australia

Faculty of Pharmacy, The University of Sydney, Camperdown NSW 2006, Australia
Woolcock Institute of Medical Research, University of Sydney, Glebe, NSW 2037, Australia
Department of Respiratory & Sleep Medicine, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney NSW 2065, Australia
Department of Respiratory & Sleep Medicine, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Camperdown NSW 2050, Australia
Centre for Education and Research on Ageing, Concord Hospital, Concord, NSW 2137, Australia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Afzal R. Mohammed
Received: 20 December 2015 / Revised: 3 April 2016 / Accepted: 7 April 2016 / Published: 15 April 2016
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1125 KB, uploaded 15 April 2016]   |  


Chronotherapy involves the administration of medication in coordination with the body’s circadian rhythms to maximise therapeutic effectiveness and minimise/avoid adverse effects. The aim of this study is to investigate the “time of administration” recommendations on chronotherapy for commonly-prescribed medicines in Australia. This study also aimed to explore the quality of information on the timing of administration presented in drug information sources, such as consumer medicine information (CMI) and approved product information (PI). Databases were searched for original research studies reporting on the impact of “time of administration” of the 30 most commonly-prescribed medicines in Australia for 2014. Further, time of administration recommendations from drug information sources were compared to the evidence from chronotherapy trials. Our search revealed 27 research studies, matching the inclusion and exclusion criteria. In 56% (n = 15) of the research studies, the therapeutic effect of the medicine varied with the time of administration, i.e., supported chronotherapy. For some medicines (e.g., simvastatin), circadian-based optimal administration time was evident in the information sources. Overall, dedicated studies on the timing of administration of medicines are sparse, and more studies are required. As it stands, information provision to consumers and health professionals about the optimal “time” to take medications lags behind emerging evidence. View Full-Text
Keywords: chronotherapy; circadian rhythm; medicines; statins; antihypertensives; proton pump inhibitors; timing of drug administration; Australia chronotherapy; circadian rhythm; medicines; statins; antihypertensives; proton pump inhibitors; timing of drug administration; Australia

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Kaur, G.; Phillips, C.L.; Wong, K.; McLachlan, A.J.; Saini, B. Timing of Administration: For Commonly-Prescribed Medicines in Australia. Pharmaceutics 2016, 8, 13.

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