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Pharmaceutics 2016, 8(2), 10; doi:10.3390/pharmaceutics8020010

Small Angle X-ray and Neutron Scattering: Powerful Tools for Studying the Structure of Drug-Loaded Liposomes

1
Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire de Physique (LIPhy), Université Grenoble-Alpes, CNRS-UMR 5588, 140 rue de la Physique, 38402 Saint-Martin-d’Hères, France
2
Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL) DS/LSS, CS 20156-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9, France
3
Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Firenze, Via della Lastruccia 3, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Natasa Skalko-Basnet
Received: 18 January 2016 / Revised: 9 March 2016 / Accepted: 14 March 2016 / Published: 28 March 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Liposome Technologies 2015)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2470 KB, uploaded 28 March 2016]   |  

Abstract

Nanovectors, such as liposomes, micelles and lipid nanoparticles, are recognized as efficient platforms for delivering therapeutic agents, especially those with low solubility in water. Besides being safe and non-toxic, drug carriers with improved performance should meet the requirements of (i) appropriate size and shape and (ii) cargo upload/release with unmodified properties. Structural issues are of primary importance to control the mechanism of action of loaded vectors. Overall properties, such as mean diameter and surface charge, can be obtained using bench instruments (Dynamic Light Scattering and Zeta potential). However, techniques with higher space and time resolution are needed for in-depth structural characterization. Small-angle X-ray (SAXS) and neutron (SANS) scattering techniques provide information at the nanoscale and have therefore been largely used to investigate nanovectors loaded with drugs or other biologically relevant molecules. Here we revise recent applications of these complementary scattering techniques in the field of drug delivery in pharmaceutics and medicine with a focus to liposomal carriers. In particular, we highlight those aspects that can be more commonly accessed by the interested users. View Full-Text
Keywords: small angle scattering; liposome structure; SAXS; SANS; drug loading; ASAXS small angle scattering; liposome structure; SAXS; SANS; drug loading; ASAXS
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Di Cola, E.; Grillo, I.; Ristori, S. Small Angle X-ray and Neutron Scattering: Powerful Tools for Studying the Structure of Drug-Loaded Liposomes. Pharmaceutics 2016, 8, 10.

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