Next Article in Journal / Special Issue
Bioavailability of Polyphenol Liposomes: A Challenge Ahead
Previous Article in Journal
The Flux of Phenolic Compounds through Silicone Membranes
Previous Article in Special Issue
Physical and Oxidative Stability of Uncoated and Chitosan-Coated Liposomes Containing Grape Seed Extract
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Pharmaceutics 2013, 5(3), 445-456; doi:10.3390/pharmaceutics5030445

Pectosomes and Chitosomes as Delivery Systems for Metronidazole: The One-Pot Preparation Method

Drug Transport and Delivery Research Group, Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Tromsø, Tromsø 9037, Norway
Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, University of Zagreb, Zagreb 10000, Croatia
Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Umeå University, Umeå SE-90185, Sweden
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 August 2013 / Revised: 29 August 2013 / Accepted: 4 September 2013 / Published: 6 September 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Liposome Technologies)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [696 KB, uploaded 6 September 2013]   |  


Mucoadhesive liposomes offer a potential for improved residence time of liposomal systems targeting contact with mucosal tissues, such as in buccal, oral, colon, and vaginal drug delivery. Most of the currently available methods rely on the coating of preformed liposomes by various mucoadhesive polymers. The aim of this study was to develop novel mucoadhesive system by the one-pot preparation method. The pectin- and chitosan-containing liposomes, namely pectosomes and chitosomes, were prepared by the modified solvent injection method. In order to optimize this novel delivery system, we used pectins and chitosans of both high and low degree of esterification/deacetylation (DE/DD), respectively. Sonication was applied to reduce the original vesicle size. All vesicles were characterized for their size, zeta potential, metronidazole entrapment, and stability. Both pectosomes and chitosomes were found to entrap more metronidazole than conventional plain liposomes. Preliminary data indicate that the polymer is present on the liposomal surface, embedded within inner liposomal bilayers, and entrapped inside the aqueous compartment. The next step in the evaluation of this system is the testing of its mucoadhesiveness.
Keywords: liposomes; pectosomes; chitosomes; metronidazole; mucoadhesion; polymer-coating; vaginal therapy liposomes; pectosomes; chitosomes; metronidazole; mucoadhesion; polymer-coating; vaginal therapy

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Andersen, T.; Vanić, Ž.; Flaten, G.E.; Mattsson, S.; Tho, I.; Škalko-Basnet, N. Pectosomes and Chitosomes as Delivery Systems for Metronidazole: The One-Pot Preparation Method. Pharmaceutics 2013, 5, 445-456.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Pharmaceutics EISSN 1999-4923 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top