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Physical and Oxidative Stability of Uncoated and Chitosan-Coated Liposomes Containing Grape Seed Extract
Department of Food Physics and Meat Science, Institute of Food Science and Biotechnology, University of Hohenheim, Garbenstr. 25, Stuttgart 70599, Germany
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 June 2013; in revised form: 8 August 2013 / Accepted: 12 August 2013 / Published: 20 August 2013
Abstract: Polyphenol-rich grape seed extract (0.1 w/w%) was incorporated in liposomes (1 w/w% soy lecithin) by high pressure homogenization (22,500 psi) and coated with chitosan (0.1 w/w%). Primary liposomes and chitosan-coated secondary liposomes containing grape seed extract showed good physical stability during 98 days of storage. Most of the polyphenols were incorporated in the shell of the liposomes (85.4%), whereas only 7.6% of the polyphenols of grape seed extract were located in the interior of the liposomes. Coating with chitosan did not change the polyphenol content in the liposomes (86.6%). The uncoated liposomes without grape seed extract were highly prone to lipid oxidation. The cationic chitosan coating, however, improved the oxidative stability to some extent, due to its ability to repel pro-oxidant metals. Encapsulated grape seed extract showed high antioxidant activity in both primary and secondary liposomes, which may be attributed to its polyphenol content. In conclusion, the best chemical stability of liposomes can be achieved using a combination of grape seed extract and chitosan.
Keywords: grape seed extract; polyphenols; chitosan; liposomes; coating; stability; lipid oxidation; hexanal
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MDPI and ACS Style
Gibis, M.; Rahn, N.; Weiss, J. Physical and Oxidative Stability of Uncoated and Chitosan-Coated Liposomes Containing Grape Seed Extract. Pharmaceutics 2013, 5, 421-433.
Gibis M, Rahn N, Weiss J. Physical and Oxidative Stability of Uncoated and Chitosan-Coated Liposomes Containing Grape Seed Extract. Pharmaceutics. 2013; 5(3):421-433.
Gibis, Monika; Rahn, Nina; Weiss, Jochen. 2013. "Physical and Oxidative Stability of Uncoated and Chitosan-Coated Liposomes Containing Grape Seed Extract." Pharmaceutics 5, no. 3: 421-433.