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Breakdown of the Blood-Ocular Barrier as a Strategy for the Systemic Use of Nanosystems
Heart Institute, Medical School Hospital, University of São Paulo, São Paulo 05403-000, Brazil
Faculty of Pharmaceutical Science, University of São Paulo, São Paulo 05508-000, Brazil
Department of Ophthalmology, University of Campinas, Campinas, São Paulo 13083-887, Brazil
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 February 2012; in revised form: 17 April 2012 / Accepted: 5 May 2012 / Published: 14 May 2012
Abstract: Several drug delivery systems have been proposed to overcome physiological barriers, improving ocular bioavailability. Systemic routes are seldom used due to the blood-ocular barrier. Novel drug delivery systems based on nanotechnology techniques have been developed to overcome ocular physiological barriers. This non-systematic review suggests the utilization of a transitory blood-ocular breakdown to allow the access of drugs by nanotechnology drug delivery systems via the systemic route. We discuss the possible ways to cause the breakdown of the blood-ocular barrier: acute inflammation caused by intraocular surgery, induced ocular hypotony, and the use of inflammatory mediators. The suitability of use of the systemic route and its toxic effects are also discussed in this article.
Keywords: blood-ocular barrier; hypotony; nanotechnology; ocular drug delivery system; ocular inflammatory mediators; systemic route
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MDPI and ACS Style
Occhiutto, M.L.; Freitas, F.R.; Maranhao, R.C.; Costa, V.P. Breakdown of the Blood-Ocular Barrier as a Strategy for the Systemic Use of Nanosystems. Pharmaceutics 2012, 4, 252-275.
Occhiutto ML, Freitas FR, Maranhao RC, Costa VP. Breakdown of the Blood-Ocular Barrier as a Strategy for the Systemic Use of Nanosystems. Pharmaceutics. 2012; 4(2):252-275.
Occhiutto, Marcelo L.; Freitas, Fatima R.; Maranhao, Raul C.; Costa, Vital P. 2012. "Breakdown of the Blood-Ocular Barrier as a Strategy for the Systemic Use of Nanosystems." Pharmaceutics 4, no. 2: 252-275.