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Pharmaceutics 2012, 4(1), 243-251; doi:10.3390/pharmaceutics4010243

Ophthalmic Drug Delivery in Glaucoma—A Review

* ,  and
Eye Clinic of Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas 50009, Lithuania
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 February 2012 / Revised: 29 February 2012 / Accepted: 14 March 2012 / Published: 21 March 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ocular Drug Delivery)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [96 KB, 22 March 2012; original version 21 March 2012]


Glaucoma is a progressive optic neuropathy and medical therapy is the initial option for the treatment of this potentially blinding condition. Topical instillation of eye drops from the bottle is the most common glaucoma drug delivery form. Due to limited permeability of anterior ocular surface, natural clearance and drainage, eye drops contain large amounts of inactive ingredients. Effective penetration enhancers are known as irritants causing ocular discomfort. Although drug efficacy is determined by active ingredients, inactive agents can affect tolerance and can result in conjunctival irritation and hyperemia and influence patients’ adherence and quality of life.
Keywords: glaucoma; pharmacokinetics; drug penetration; topical application glaucoma; pharmacokinetics; drug penetration; topical application
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Januleviciene, I.; Siaudvytyte, L.; Barsauskaite, R. Ophthalmic Drug Delivery in Glaucoma—A Review. Pharmaceutics 2012, 4, 243-251.

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