Pharmaceutics 2012, 4(1), 26-41; doi:10.3390/pharmaceutics4010026
Review

Tissue Engineered Human Skin Equivalents

1 and 2,* email
Received: 16 November 2011; in revised form: 15 December 2011 / Accepted: 26 December 2011 / Published: 6 January 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transdermal Drug Delivery)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Human skin not only serves as an important barrier against the penetration of exogenous substances into the body, but also provides a potential avenue for the transport of functional active drugs/reagents/ingredients into the skin (topical delivery) and/or the body (transdermal delivery). In the past three decades, research and development in human skin equivalents have advanced in parallel with those in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The human skin equivalents are used commercially as clinical skin substitutes and as models for permeation and toxicity screening. Several academic laboratories have developed their own human skin equivalent models and applied these models for studying skin permeation, corrosivity and irritation, compound toxicity, biochemistry, metabolism and cellular pharmacology. Various aspects of the state of the art of human skin equivalents are reviewed and discussed.
Keywords: human skin equivalents; tissue engineering; regenerative medicine; skin grafts; skin models
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhang, Z.; Michniak-Kohn, B.B. Tissue Engineered Human Skin Equivalents. Pharmaceutics 2012, 4, 26-41.

AMA Style

Zhang Z, Michniak-Kohn BB. Tissue Engineered Human Skin Equivalents. Pharmaceutics. 2012; 4(1):26-41.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhang, Zheng; Michniak-Kohn, Bozena B. 2012. "Tissue Engineered Human Skin Equivalents." Pharmaceutics 4, no. 1: 26-41.

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