Pharmaceutics 2011, 3(4), 923-931; doi:10.3390/pharmaceutics3040923
Article

Effect of Duration and Amplitude of Direct Current when Lidocaine Is Delivered by Iontophoresis

1 University of Virginia, PO Box 400407, Charlottesville, VA 22904, USA 2 Ortho Rehab & Specialty Centers, 3808 Rose Point Cove, PO Box 241574, Little Rock, AR 72223, USA 3 University of Kentucky, 900 South Limestone Street, Lexington, KY 40536, USA 4 Central Michigan University, 2217 Health Professions Building, Mt. Pleasant, MI 48859, USA 5 University of Virginia, PO Box 400834, Charlottesville, VA 22904, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 October 2011; in revised form: 25 November 2011 / Accepted: 5 December 2011 / Published: 6 December 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transdermal Drug Delivery)
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Abstract: Dosage for the galvanic stimulation for iontophoresis varies. Clinicians manipulate the duration or the amplitude of the current, but it is not known which is more effective. We compared the anesthetic effect of lidocaine HCL (2%) by manipulating the current parameters on 21 healthy volunteers (age: 21.2 ± 4.2, height 170.7 ± 10.2 cm, mass 82.1 ± 19.2 kg). Three conditions were administered in a random order using a Phoresor II® with 2 mL, 2% lidocaine HCL in an iontophoresis electrode. (1) HASD (40 mA*min): High amplitude (4 mA), short duration (10 min); (2) LALD (40 mA.min): Low amplitude (2 mA), long duration (20 min); (3) Sham condition (0 mA, 20 min). Semmes-Weinstein monofilament (SWM) scores were taken pre and post intervention to measure sensation changes. Two-way ANOVA with repeated measures was used to compare sensation. Both iontophoresis treatments: LALD (4.2 ± 0.32 mm) and HASD (4.2 ± 0.52 mm) significantly increased SWM scores, indicating an increase in anesthesia, compared to the sham condition (3.6 ± 0.06 mm) p < 0.05. Neither LALD nor HASD was more effective and there was no difference in anesthesia with the sham. Lidocaine delivered via iontophoresis reduces cutaneous sensation. However, there was no benefit in either a HASD or LALD treatment.
Keywords: percutaneous drug delivery; physical therapy; transdermal; electrical stimulation; electroporation

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MDPI and ACS Style

Saliba, S.A.; Teeter-Heyl, C.L.; McKeon, P.; Ingeroll, C.D.; Saliba, E.N. Effect of Duration and Amplitude of Direct Current when Lidocaine Is Delivered by Iontophoresis. Pharmaceutics 2011, 3, 923-931.

AMA Style

Saliba SA, Teeter-Heyl CL, McKeon P, Ingeroll CD, Saliba EN. Effect of Duration and Amplitude of Direct Current when Lidocaine Is Delivered by Iontophoresis. Pharmaceutics. 2011; 3(4):923-931.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Saliba, Susan A.; Teeter-Heyl, Courtney L.; McKeon, Patrick; Ingeroll, Christopher D.; Saliba, Ethan N. 2011. "Effect of Duration and Amplitude of Direct Current when Lidocaine Is Delivered by Iontophoresis." Pharmaceutics 3, no. 4: 923-931.

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