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Pharmaceutics 2011, 3(3), 474-484; doi:10.3390/pharmaceutics3030474

Effects of Chemical and Physical Enhancement Techniques on Transdermal Delivery of Cyanocobalamin (Vitamin B12) In Vitro

College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Mercer University, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
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Received: 20 June 2011 / Revised: 3 August 2011 / Accepted: 8 August 2011 / Published: 10 August 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transdermal Drug Delivery)
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Abstract

Vitamin B12 deficiency, which may result in anemia and nerve damage if left untreated, is currently treated by administration of cyanocobalamin via oral or intramuscular routes. However, these routes are associated with absorption and compliance issues which have prompted us to investigate skin as an alternative site of administration. Delivery through skin, however, is restricted to small and moderately lipophilic molecules due to the outermost barrier, the stratum corneum (SC). In this study, we have investigated the effect of different enhancement techniques, chemical enhancers (ethanol, oleic acid, propylene glycol), iontophoresis (anodal iontophoresis) and microneedles (soluble maltose microneedles), which may overcome this barrier and improve cyanocobalamin delivery. Studies with different chemical enhancer formulations indicated that ethanol and oleic acid decreased the lag time while propylene glycol based formulations increased the lag time. The formulation with ethanol (50%), oleic acid (10%) and propylene glycol (40%) showed the maximum improvement in delivery. Iontophoresis and microneedle treatments resulted in enhanced permeation levels compared to passive controls. These enhancement approaches can be explored further to develop alternative treatment regimens. View Full-Text
Keywords: cyanocobalamin; Vitamin B12; microneedles; iontophoresis; chemical enhancers; transdermal; skin; drug delivery cyanocobalamin; Vitamin B12; microneedles; iontophoresis; chemical enhancers; transdermal; skin; drug delivery
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Yang, Y.; Kalluri, H.; Banga, A.K. Effects of Chemical and Physical Enhancement Techniques on Transdermal Delivery of Cyanocobalamin (Vitamin B12) In Vitro. Pharmaceutics 2011, 3, 474-484.

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