Next Article in Journal
Susceptibility and Lethality of Western Equine Encephalitis Virus in Balb/c Mice When Infected by the Aerosol Route
Previous Article in Journal
Characterization of Sinorhizobium sp. LM21 Prophages and Virus-Encoded DNA Methyltransferases in the Light of Comparative Genomic Analyses of the Sinorhizobial Virome
Previous Article in Special Issue
Epigenetic Control of Human Endogenous Retrovirus Expression: Focus on Regulation of Long-Terminal Repeats (LTRs)
Article Menu
Issue 7 (July) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Viruses 2017, 9(7), 162; doi:10.3390/v9070162

Type W Human Endogenous Retrovirus (HERV-W) Integrations and Their Mobilization by L1 Machinery: Contribution to the Human Transcriptome and Impact on the Host Physiopathology

1
Department of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Cagliari, Cittadella Universitaria di Monserrato SS554, 09042 Monserrato, Cagliari, Italy
2
Istituto di Ricerca Genetica e Biomedica, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), 09042 Monserrato, Cagliari, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: David J. Garfinkel and Katarzyna J. Purzycka
Received: 16 March 2017 / Revised: 8 June 2017 / Accepted: 20 June 2017 / Published: 27 June 2017
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [923 KB, uploaded 6 July 2017]   |  

Abstract

Human Endogenous Retroviruses (HERVs) are ancient infection relics constituting ~8% of our DNA. While HERVs’ genomic characterization is still ongoing, impressive amounts of data have been obtained regarding their general expression across tissues. Among HERVs, one of the most studied is the W group, which is the sole HERV group specifically mobilized by the long interspersed element-1 (LINE-1) machinery, providing a source of novel insertions by retrotransposition of HERV-W processed pseudogenes, and comprising a member encoding a functional envelope protein coopted for human placentation. The HERV-W group has been intensively investigated for its putative role in several diseases, such as cancer, inflammation, and autoimmunity. Despite major interest in the link between HERV-W expression and human pathogenesis, no conclusive correlation has been demonstrated so far. In general, (i) the absence of a proper identification of the specific HERV-W sequences expressed in a given condition, and (ii) the lack of studies attempting to connect the various observations in the same experimental conditions are the major problems preventing the definitive assessment of the HERV-W impact on human physiopathology. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on the HERV-W group presence within the human genome and its expression in physiological tissues as well as in the main pathological contexts. View Full-Text
Keywords: HERV-W; endogenous retroviruses; Syncytin; autoimmunity; cancer HERV-W; endogenous retroviruses; Syncytin; autoimmunity; cancer
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Grandi, N.; Tramontano, E. Type W Human Endogenous Retrovirus (HERV-W) Integrations and Their Mobilization by L1 Machinery: Contribution to the Human Transcriptome and Impact on the Host Physiopathology. Viruses 2017, 9, 162.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Viruses EISSN 1999-4915 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top