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Viruses 2017, 9(6), 137; doi:10.3390/v9060137

The 5′ and 3′ Untranslated Regions of the Flaviviral Genome

1
Programme in Emerging Infectious Diseases, Duke-National University of Singapore Medical School, Singapore 169857, Singapore
2
Department of Biochemistry, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555, USA
3
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119077, Singapore
4
Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119077, Singapore
5
Infectious Diseases Interdisciplinary Research Group, Singapore MIT Alliance in Research and Technology, Singapore 138602, Singapore
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ali Amara
Received: 5 April 2017 / Revised: 16 May 2017 / Accepted: 29 May 2017 / Published: 6 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Progress in Dengue Virus Research 2016)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [684 KB, uploaded 6 June 2017]   |  

Abstract

Flaviviruses are enveloped arthropod-borne viruses with a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genome that can cause serious illness in humans and animals. The 11 kb 5′ capped RNA genome consists of a single open reading frame (ORF), and is flanked by 5′ and 3′ untranslated regions (UTR). The ORF is a polyprotein that is processed into three structural and seven non-structural proteins. The UTRs have been shown to be important for viral replication and immune modulation. Both of these regions consist of elements that are essential for genome cyclization, resulting in initiation of RNA synthesis. Genome mutation studies have been employed to investigate each component of the essential elements to show the necessity of each component and its role in viral RNA replication and growth. Furthermore, the highly structured 3′UTR is responsible for the generation of subgenomic flavivirus RNA (sfRNA) that helps the virus evade host immune response, thereby affecting viral pathogenesis. In addition, changes within the 3′UTR have been shown to affect transmissibility between vector and host, which can influence the development of vaccines. View Full-Text
Keywords: Flavivirus; 3’untranslated region (3’UTR); subgenomic flaviviral RNA (sfRNA); viral replication Flavivirus; 3’untranslated region (3’UTR); subgenomic flaviviral RNA (sfRNA); viral replication
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ng, W.C.; Soto-Acosta, R.; Bradrick, S.S.; Garcia-Blanco, M.A.; Ooi, E.E. The 5′ and 3′ Untranslated Regions of the Flaviviral Genome. Viruses 2017, 9, 137.

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