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Viruses 2017, 9(6), 138; doi:10.3390/v9060138

Viral Encephalitis of Unknown Cause: Current Perspective and Recent Advances

1
Department of Neurology, Institute of Neurological Sciences, Glasgow University, Southern General Hospital, Glasgow G51 4TF, UK
2
Center for Infection and Immunity, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, 722 W 168th Street, New York, NY 10032, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Stacey Schultz-Cherry
Received: 17 May 2017 / Revised: 30 May 2017 / Accepted: 31 May 2017 / Published: 6 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Astroviruses)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [678 KB, uploaded 6 June 2017]   |  

Abstract

Viral encephalitis causes acute inflammation of the brain parenchyma and is a significant cause of human morbidity and mortality. Although Herpes Simplex encephalitis is the most frequent known cause of fatal sporadic encephalitis in humans, an increasingly wide range of viruses and other microbial pathogens are implicated. Up to 60% of cases of presumed viral encephalitis remain unexplained due to the failure of conventional laboratory techniques to detect an infectious agent. High-throughput DNA sequencing technologies have the potential to detect any microbial nucleic acid present in a biological specimen without any prior knowledge of the target sequence. While there remain challenges intrinsic to these technologies, they have great promise in virus discovery in unexplained encephalitis. View Full-Text
Keywords: virus; encephalitis; virus discovery; unbiased high-throughput sequencing virus; encephalitis; virus discovery; unbiased high-throughput sequencing
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Kennedy, P.G.E.; Quan, P.-L.; Lipkin, W.I. Viral Encephalitis of Unknown Cause: Current Perspective and Recent Advances. Viruses 2017, 9, 138.

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