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Viruses 2017, 9(5), 104; doi:10.3390/v9050104

Nasal Infection of Enterovirus D68 Leading to Lower Respiratory Tract Pathogenesis in Ferrets (Mustela putorius furo)

Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Kunming 650118, China
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Academic Editor: Andrew Mehle
Received: 4 February 2017 / Revised: 30 April 2017 / Accepted: 5 May 2017 / Published: 10 May 2017
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Abstract

Data from EV-D68-infected patients demonstrate that pathological changes in the lower respiratory tract are principally characterized by severe respiratory illness in children and acute flaccid myelitis. However, lack of a suitable animal model for EV-D68 infection has limited the study on the pathogenesis of this critical pathogen, and the development of a vaccine. Ferrets have been widely used to evaluate respiratory virus infections. In the current study, we used EV-D68-infected ferrets as a potential animal to identify impersonal indices, involving clinical features and histopathological changes in the upper and lower respiratory tract (URT and LRT). The research results demonstrate that the EV-D68 virus leads to minimal clinical symptoms in ferrets. According to the viral load detection in the feces, nasal, and respiratory tracts, the infection and shedding of EV-D68 in the ferret model was confirmed, and these results were supported by the EV-D68 VP1 immunofluorescence confocal imaging with α2,6-linked sialic acid (SA) in lung tissues. Furthermore, we detected the inflammatory cytokine/chemokine expression level, which implied high expression levels of interleukin (IL)-1a, IL-8, IL-5, IL-12, IL-13, and IL-17a in the lungs. These data indicate that systemic observation of responses following infection with EV-D68 in ferrets could be used as a model for EV-D68 infection and pathogenesis. View Full-Text
Keywords: enterovirus D68; animal models; ferret; lower respiratory tract pathogenesis enterovirus D68; animal models; ferret; lower respiratory tract pathogenesis
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Zheng, H.-W.; Sun, M.; Guo, L.; Wang, J.-J.; Song, J.; Li, J.-Q.; Li, H.-Z.; Ning, R.-T.; Yang, Z.-N.; Fan, H.-T.; He, Z.-L.; Liu, L.-D. Nasal Infection of Enterovirus D68 Leading to Lower Respiratory Tract Pathogenesis in Ferrets (Mustela putorius furo). Viruses 2017, 9, 104.

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