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Viruses 2017, 9(4), 91; doi:10.3390/v9040091

Dengue Virus Non-Structural Protein 5

School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Institute for Structural Biology, Experimental Medicine Building, 59 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 636921, Singapore
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Academic Editors: Ali Amara and Felix Rey
Received: 31 January 2017 / Revised: 15 April 2017 / Accepted: 20 April 2017 / Published: 24 April 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Progress in Dengue Virus Research 2016)
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Abstract

The World Health Organization estimates that the yearly number of dengue cases averages 390 million. This mosquito-borne virus disease is endemic in over 100 countries and will probably continue spreading, given the observed trend in global warming. So far, there is no antiviral drug available against dengue, but a vaccine has been recently marketed. Dengue virus also serves as a prototype for the study of other pathogenic flaviviruses that are emerging, like West Nile virus and Zika virus. Upon viral entry into the host cell and fusion of the viral lipid membrane with the endosomal membrane, the viral RNA is released and expressed as a polyprotein, that is then matured into three structural and seven non-structural (NS) proteins. The envelope, membrane and capsid proteins form the viral particle while NS1-NS2A-NS2B-NS3-NS4A-NS4B and NS5 assemble inside a cellular replication complex, which is embedded in endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-derived vesicles. In addition to their roles in RNA replication within the infected cell, NS proteins help the virus escape the host innate immunity and reshape the host-cell inner structure. This review focuses on recent progress in characterizing the structure and functions of NS5, a protein responsible for the replication and capping of viral RNA that represents a promising drug target. View Full-Text
Keywords: flavivirus; dengue virus; NS5 polymerase flavivirus; dengue virus; NS5 polymerase
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El Sahili, A.; Lescar, J. Dengue Virus Non-Structural Protein 5. Viruses 2017, 9, 91.

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