Replication and Oncolytic Activity of an Avian Orthoreovirus in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells
AbstractOncolytic viruses are cancer therapeutics with promising outcomes in pre-clinical and clinical settings. Animal viruses have the possibility to avoid pre-existing immunity in humans, while being safe and immunostimulatory. We isolated an avian orthoreovirus (ARV-PB1), and tested it against a panel of hepatocellular carcinoma cells. We found that ARV-PB1 replicated well and induced strong cytopathic effects. It was determined that one mechanism of cell death was through syncytia formation, resulting in apoptosis and induction of interferon stimulated genes (ISGs). As hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of hepatocellular carcinoma worldwide, we investigated the effect of ARV-PB1 against cells already infected with this virus. Both HCV replicon-containing and infected cells supported ARV-PB1 replication and underwent cytolysis. Finally, we generated in silico models to compare the structures of human reovirus- and ARV-PB1-derived S1 proteins, which are the primary targets of neutralizing antibodies. Tertiary alignments confirmed that ARV-PB1 differs from its human homolog, suggesting that immunity to human reoviruses would not be a barrier to its use. Therefore, ARV-PB1 can potentially expand the repertoire of oncolytic viruses for treatment of human hepatocellular carcinoma and other malignancies. View Full-Text
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Kozak, R.A.; Hattin, L.; Biondi, M.J.; Corredor, J.C.; Walsh, S.; Xue-Zhong, M.; Manuel, J.; McGilvray, I.D.; Morgenstern, J.; Lusty, E.; Cherepanov, V.; McBey, B.-A.; Leishman, D.; Feld, J.J.; Bridle, B.; Nagy, É. Replication and Oncolytic Activity of an Avian Orthoreovirus in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells. Viruses 2017, 9, 90.
Kozak RA, Hattin L, Biondi MJ, Corredor JC, Walsh S, Xue-Zhong M, Manuel J, McGilvray ID, Morgenstern J, Lusty E, Cherepanov V, McBey B-A, Leishman D, Feld JJ, Bridle B, Nagy É. Replication and Oncolytic Activity of an Avian Orthoreovirus in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells. Viruses. 2017; 9(4):90.Chicago/Turabian Style
Kozak, Robert A.; Hattin, Larissa; Biondi, Mia J.; Corredor, Juan C.; Walsh, Scott; Xue-Zhong, Max; Manuel, Justin; McGilvray, Ian D.; Morgenstern, Jason; Lusty, Evan; Cherepanov, Vera; McBey, Betty-Anne; Leishman, David; Feld, Jordan J.; Bridle, Byram; Nagy, Éva. 2017. "Replication and Oncolytic Activity of an Avian Orthoreovirus in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells." Viruses 9, no. 4: 90.
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