Next Article in Journal
Cross-Regulation between Transposable Elements and Host DNA Replication
Previous Article in Journal
Complete and Incomplete Hepatitis B Virus Particles: Formation, Function, and Application
Article Menu
Issue 3 (March) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Viruses 2017, 9(3), 58; doi:10.3390/v9030058

Virus-Bacteria Interactions: An Emerging Topic in Human Infection

Department of Microbiology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA
Department of Food, Bioprocessing and Nutrition Sciences, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA
Current address: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Enteric Diseases Laboratory Branch, 1600 Clifton Rd., Atlanta, GA 30329, USA.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jens H. Kuhn
Received: 13 February 2017 / Revised: 15 March 2017 / Accepted: 17 March 2017 / Published: 21 March 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [223 KB, uploaded 24 March 2017]


Bacteria and viruses often occupy the same niches, however, interest in their potential collaboration in promoting wellness or disease states has only recently gained traction. While the interaction of some bacteria and viruses is well characterized (e.g., influenza virus), researchers are typically more interested in the location of the infection than the manner of cooperation. There are two overarching types of bacterial-virus disease causing interactions: direct interactions that in some way aid the viruses, and indirect interactions aiding bacteria. The virus-promoting direct interactions occur when the virus exploits a bacterial component to facilitate penetration into the host cell. Conversely, indirect interactions result in increased bacterial pathogenesis as a consequence of viral infection. Enteric viruses mainly utilize the direct pathway, while respiratory viruses largely affect bacteria in an indirect fashion. This review focuses on some key examples of how virus-bacteria interactions impact the infection process across the two organ systems, and provides evidence supporting this as an emerging theme in infectious disease. View Full-Text
Keywords: interaction; enteric; respiratory; bacteria; virus; pathogenesis; bacteria-virus interaction interaction; enteric; respiratory; bacteria; virus; pathogenesis; bacteria-virus interaction
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Almand, E.A.; Moore, M.D.; Jaykus, L.-A. Virus-Bacteria Interactions: An Emerging Topic in Human Infection. Viruses 2017, 9, 58.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Viruses EISSN 1999-4915 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top