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Viruses 2017, 9(3), 58; doi:10.3390/v9030058

Virus-Bacteria Interactions: An Emerging Topic in Human Infection

1
Department of Microbiology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA
2
Department of Food, Bioprocessing and Nutrition Sciences, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA
3
Current address: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Enteric Diseases Laboratory Branch, 1600 Clifton Rd., Atlanta, GA 30329, USA.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jens H. Kuhn
Received: 13 February 2017 / Revised: 15 March 2017 / Accepted: 17 March 2017 / Published: 21 March 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [223 KB, uploaded 24 March 2017]

Abstract

Bacteria and viruses often occupy the same niches, however, interest in their potential collaboration in promoting wellness or disease states has only recently gained traction. While the interaction of some bacteria and viruses is well characterized (e.g., influenza virus), researchers are typically more interested in the location of the infection than the manner of cooperation. There are two overarching types of bacterial-virus disease causing interactions: direct interactions that in some way aid the viruses, and indirect interactions aiding bacteria. The virus-promoting direct interactions occur when the virus exploits a bacterial component to facilitate penetration into the host cell. Conversely, indirect interactions result in increased bacterial pathogenesis as a consequence of viral infection. Enteric viruses mainly utilize the direct pathway, while respiratory viruses largely affect bacteria in an indirect fashion. This review focuses on some key examples of how virus-bacteria interactions impact the infection process across the two organ systems, and provides evidence supporting this as an emerging theme in infectious disease. View Full-Text
Keywords: interaction; enteric; respiratory; bacteria; virus; pathogenesis; bacteria-virus interaction interaction; enteric; respiratory; bacteria; virus; pathogenesis; bacteria-virus interaction
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Almand, E.A.; Moore, M.D.; Jaykus, L.-A. Virus-Bacteria Interactions: An Emerging Topic in Human Infection. Viruses 2017, 9, 58.

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