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Viruses 2017, 9(11), 311; doi:10.3390/v9110311

Deep Sequencing Data and Infectivity Assays Indicate that Chickpea Chlorotic Dwarf Virus is the Etiological Agent of the “Hard Fruit Syndrome” of Watermelon

1
Laboratoire de Biotechnologie Appliquée à l’Agriculture, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie (INRAT), Université de Carthage, El Rue Hedi Karray Menzah, 1004 Tunis, Tunisia
2
Institute for Sustainable Plant Protection (IPSP), CNR, 10135 Turin, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 September 2017 / Revised: 13 October 2017 / Accepted: 21 October 2017 / Published: 25 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geminiviruses)
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Abstract

Chickpea chlorotic dwarf virus (CpCDV), a polyphagous mastrevirus, family Geminiviridae, has been recently linked to the onset of the “hard fruit syndrome” of watermelon, first described in Tunisia, that makes fruits unmarketable due to the presence of white hard portions in the flesh, chlorotic mottling on the rind, and an unpleasant taste. To investigate the etiological agent of this disease, total RNA extracted from symptomatic watermelon fruits was subjected to small RNA sequencing through next generation sequencing (NGS) techniques. Data obtained showed the presence of CpCDV and two other viral species. However, following validation through polymerase chain reaction (PCR), CpCDV was the only viral species consistently detected in all samples. Watermelon seedlings were then challenged by an agroinfectious CpCDV clone; several plants proved to be CpCDV-infected, and were able to produce fruits. CpCDV infected and replicated in watermelon fruits and leaves, leading to abnormality in fruits and in seed production, similar to those described in field. These results indicate that CpCDV is the etiological agent of the “hard fruit syndrome” of watermelon. View Full-Text
Keywords: watermelon; CpCDV infectious clone; next generation sequencing; mastrevirus; Geminiviridae; hard fruit syndrome; Amalgaviridae watermelon; CpCDV infectious clone; next generation sequencing; mastrevirus; Geminiviridae; hard fruit syndrome; Amalgaviridae
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    Description: Table S1: Viral species identified by a) BLASTn and b) BLASTx analyses; Table S2: List of all contigs obtained showing homology with known viruses according BLASTn and BLASTx analysis.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Zaagueri, T.; Miozzi, L.; Mnari-Hattab, M.; Noris, E.; Accotto, G.P.; Vaira, A.M. Deep Sequencing Data and Infectivity Assays Indicate that Chickpea Chlorotic Dwarf Virus is the Etiological Agent of the “Hard Fruit Syndrome” of Watermelon. Viruses 2017, 9, 311.

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