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Viruses 2017, 9(10), 286; doi:10.3390/v9100286

Protoparvovirus Knocking at the Nuclear Door

1
Department of Biological and Environmental Science and Nanoscience Center, University of Jyvaskyla, FI-40500 Jyvaskyla, Finland
2
Laboratoire de Microbiologie Fondamentale et Pathogénicité, University of Bordeaux, UMR 5234, F-33076 Bordeaux, France
3
Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS), Microbiologie Fondamentale et Pathogénicité, UMR 5234, F-33076 Bordeaux, France
4
Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Bordeaux, Service de Virologie, F-33076 Bordeaux, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 September 2017 / Revised: 28 September 2017 / Accepted: 29 September 2017 / Published: 2 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protoparvoviruses: Friends or Foes?)
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Abstract

Protoparvoviruses target the nucleus due to their dependence on the cellular reproduction machinery during the replication and expression of their single-stranded DNA genome. In recent years, our understanding of the multistep process of the capsid nuclear import has improved, and led to the discovery of unique viral nuclear entry strategies. Preceded by endosomal transport, endosomal escape and microtubule-mediated movement to the vicinity of the nuclear envelope, the protoparvoviruses interact with the nuclear pore complexes. The capsids are transported actively across the nuclear pore complexes using nuclear import receptors. The nuclear import is sometimes accompanied by structural changes in the nuclear envelope, and is completed by intranuclear disassembly of capsids and chromatinization of the viral genome. This review discusses the nuclear import strategies of protoparvoviruses and describes its dynamics comprising active and passive movement, and directed and diffusive motion of capsids in the molecularly crowded environment of the cell. View Full-Text
Keywords: protoparvovirus; intracellular dynamics; entry; nuclear import; nuclear envelope; nuclear pore complex; importins; nuclear localization sequence; nuclear envelope break down protoparvovirus; intracellular dynamics; entry; nuclear import; nuclear envelope; nuclear pore complex; importins; nuclear localization sequence; nuclear envelope break down
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Mäntylä, E.; Kann, M.; Vihinen-Ranta, M. Protoparvovirus Knocking at the Nuclear Door. Viruses 2017, 9, 286.

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