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Viruses 2017, 9(10), 273; doi:10.3390/v9100273

The Incredible Journey of Begomoviruses in Their Whitefly Vector

1
Institute of Plant Sciences and Genetics in Agriculture, Robert H. Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot, 7610001, Israel
2
Department of Entomology, Agricultural Research Organization, Volcani Center, HaMaccabim Road 68, Rishon LeZion, 7505101, Israel
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 August 2017 / Revised: 13 September 2017 / Accepted: 18 September 2017 / Published: 24 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geminiviruses)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [810 KB, uploaded 25 September 2017]   |  

Abstract

Begomoviruses are vectored in a circulative persistent manner by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci. The insect ingests viral particles with its stylets. Virions pass along the food canal and reach the esophagus and the midgut. They cross the filter chamber and the midgut into the haemolymph, translocate into the primary salivary glands and are egested with the saliva into the plant phloem. Begomoviruses have to cross several barriers and checkpoints successfully, while interacting with would-be receptors and other whitefly proteins. The bulk of the virus remains associated with the midgut and the filter chamber. In these tissues, viral genomes, mainly from the tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) family, may be transcribed and may replicate. However, at the same time, virus amounts peak, and the insect autophagic response is activated, which in turn inhibits replication and induces the destruction of the virus. Some begomoviruses invade tissues outside the circulative pathway, such as ovaries and fat cells. Autophagy limits the amounts of virus associated with these organs. In this review, we discuss the different sites begomoviruses need to cross to complete a successful circular infection, the role of the coat protein in this process and the sites that balance between virus accumulation and virus destruction. View Full-Text
Keywords: begomovirus; TYLCV; whitefly; transcription and replication; autophagy begomovirus; TYLCV; whitefly; transcription and replication; autophagy
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Czosnek, H.; Hariton-Shalev, A.; Sobol, I.; Gorovits, R.; Ghanim, M. The Incredible Journey of Begomoviruses in Their Whitefly Vector. Viruses 2017, 9, 273.

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