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Viruses 2016, 8(6), 176; doi:10.3390/v8060176

Mouse Systems to Model Hepatitis C Virus Treatment and Associated Resistance

Center for Vaccinology, Department of Clinical Chemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, Ghent University, Ghent 9000, Belgium
Therapeutic Chemistry Department, National Research Centre (NRC), Dokki, Cairo 12622, Egypt
Laboratory of Virology and Infectious Disease, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10065, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Thomas F. Baumert
Received: 23 February 2016 / Revised: 12 May 2016 / Accepted: 16 June 2016 / Published: 22 June 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue HCV Drug Resistance)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [614 KB, uploaded 22 June 2016]   |  


While addition of the first-approved protease inhibitors (PIs), telaprevir and boceprevir, to pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) and ribavirin (RBV) combination therapy significantly increased sustained virologic response (SVR) rates, PI-based triple therapy for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection was prone to the emergence of resistant viral variants. Meanwhile, multiple direct acting antiviral agents (DAAs) targeting either the HCV NS3/4A protease, NS5A or NS5B polymerase have been approved and these have varying potencies and distinct propensities to provoke resistance. The pre-clinical in vivo assessment of drug efficacy and resistant variant emergence underwent a great evolution over the last decade. This field had long been hampered by the lack of suitable small animal models that robustly support the entire HCV life cycle. In particular, chimeric mice with humanized livers (humanized mice) and chimpanzees have been instrumental for studying HCV inhibitors and the evolution of drug resistance. In this review, we present the different in vivo HCV infection models and discuss their applicability to assess HCV therapy response and emergence of resistant variants. View Full-Text
Keywords: HCV; animal models; therapy; direct acting antiviral agents; humanized mice; resistance; deep sequencing HCV; animal models; therapy; direct acting antiviral agents; humanized mice; resistance; deep sequencing

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Mesalam, A.A.; Vercauteren, K.; Meuleman, P. Mouse Systems to Model Hepatitis C Virus Treatment and Associated Resistance. Viruses 2016, 8, 176.

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