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Viruses 2016, 8(3), 82; doi:10.3390/v8030082

Roles of the Picornaviral 3C Proteinase in the Viral Life Cycle and Host Cells

1,2
,
1,2,3
,
1,2,3,* and 1,2,3,*
1
Avian Disease Research Center, College of Veterinary Medicine, Sichuan Agricultural University, Wenjiang, Chengdu 611130, China
2
Institute of Preventive Veterinary Medicine, Sichuan Agricultural University, Wenjiang, Chengdu 611130, China
3
Key Laboratory of Animal Disease and Human Health of Sichuan Province, Wenjiang, Chengdu 611130, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Alexander Ploss
Received: 12 December 2015 / Revised: 27 February 2016 / Accepted: 7 March 2016 / Published: 17 March 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3080 KB, uploaded 17 March 2016]   |  

Abstract

The Picornaviridae family comprises a large group of non-enveloped viruses that have a major impact on human and veterinary health. The viral genome contains one open reading frame encoding a single polyprotein that can be processed by viral proteinases. The crucial 3C proteinases (3Cpros) of picornaviruses share similar spatial structures and it is becoming apparent that 3Cpro plays a significant role in the viral life cycle and virus host interaction. Importantly, the proteinase and RNA-binding activity of 3Cpro are involved in viral polyprotein processing and the initiation of viral RNA synthesis. In addition, 3Cpro can induce the cleavage of certain cellular factors required for transcription, translation and nucleocytoplasmic trafficking to modulate cell physiology for viral replication. Due to interactions between 3Cpro and these essential factors, 3Cpro is also involved in viral pathogenesis to support efficient infection. Furthermore, based on the structural conservation, the development of irreversible inhibitors and discovery of non-covalent inhibitors for 3Cpro are ongoing and a better understanding of the roles played by 3Cpro may provide insights into the development of potential antiviral treatments. In this review, the current knowledge regarding the structural features, multiple functions in the viral life cycle, pathogen host interaction, and development of antiviral compounds for 3Cpro is summarized. View Full-Text
Keywords: 3Cpro; structure; viral replication; translation initiation; pathogenesis; protease inhibitor 3Cpro; structure; viral replication; translation initiation; pathogenesis; protease inhibitor
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Sun, D.; Chen, S.; Cheng, A.; Wang, M. Roles of the Picornaviral 3C Proteinase in the Viral Life Cycle and Host Cells. Viruses 2016, 8, 82.

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