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Viruses 2016, 8(2), 38; doi:10.3390/v8020038

Genetic Markers of the Host in Persons Living with HTLV-1, HIV and HCV Infections

1
Laboratory of Dermatology and Immune deficiencies, Department of Dermatology, University of São Paulo Medical School, LIM56, Av. Dr. Eneas de Carvalho Aguiar 500, 3rd Floor, Building II, São Paulo, SP, Brazil
2
Institute of Tropical Medicine of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
3
Department of Preventive Medicine, University of São Paulo Medical School, São Paulo, Brazil
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Louis M. Mansky
Received: 24 September 2015 / Revised: 11 January 2016 / Accepted: 15 January 2016 / Published: 3 February 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in HTLV Research 2015)
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Abstract

Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) are prevalent worldwide, and share similar means of transmission. These infections may influence each other in evolution and outcome, including cancer or immunodeficiency. Many studies have reported the influence of genetic markers on the host immune response against different persistent viral infections, such as HTLV-1 infection, pointing to the importance of the individual genetic background on their outcomes. However, despite recent advances on the knowledge of the pathogenesis of HTLV-1 infection, gaps in the understanding of the role of the individual genetic background on the progress to disease clinically manifested still remain. In this scenario, much less is known regarding the influence of genetic factors in the context of dual or triple infections or their influence on the underlying mechanisms that lead to outcomes that differ from those observed in monoinfection. This review describes the main factors involved in the virus–host balance, especially for some particular human leukocyte antigen (HLA) haplotypes, and other important genetic markers in the development of HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) and other persistent viruses, such as HIV and HCV. View Full-Text
Keywords: HTLV-1; HIV-1; HCV; genetic factors HTLV-1; HIV-1; HCV; genetic factors
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Assone, T.; Paiva, A.; Fonseca, L.A.M.; Casseb, J. Genetic Markers of the Host in Persons Living with HTLV-1, HIV and HCV Infections. Viruses 2016, 8, 38.

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