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Viruses 2016, 8(2), 31; doi:10.3390/v8020031

Molecular Studies of HTLV-1 Replication: An Update

1
Institute for Molecular Virology, Pharmacoimmunology Training Program & Pharmacology Graduate Program, University of Minnesota, 18-242 Moos Tower, 515 Delaware Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
2
Institute for Molecular Virology & DDS-PhD Dual Degree Program, University of Minnesota, 18-242 Moos Tower, 515 Delaware Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
3
Institute for Molecular Virology & School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, 18-242 Moos Tower, 515 Delaware Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
4
Institute for Molecular Virology, School of Dentistry & Characterization Facility, University of Minnesota, 18-242 Moos Tower, 515 Delaware Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
5
Institute for Molecular Virology, School of Dentistry & Pharmacology Graduate Program, University of Minnesota, 18-242 Moos Tower, 515 Delaware Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Eric O. Freed
Received: 25 November 2015 / Revised: 13 January 2016 / Accepted: 18 January 2016 / Published: 27 January 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in HTLV Research 2015)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1039 KB, uploaded 27 January 2016]   |  

Abstract

Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) was the first human retrovirus discovered. Studies on HTLV-1 have been instrumental for our understanding of the molecular pathology of virus-induced cancers. HTLV-1 is the etiological agent of an adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) and can lead to a variety of neurological pathologies, including HTLV-1-associated-myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). The ability to treat the aggressive ATL subtypes remains inadequate. HTLV-1 replicates by (1) an infectious cycle involving virus budding and infection of new permissive target cells and (2) mitotic division of cells harboring an integrated provirus. Virus replication initiates host antiviral immunity and the checkpoint control of cell proliferation, but HTLV-1 has evolved elegant strategies to counteract these host defense mechanisms to allow for virus persistence. The study of the molecular biology of HTLV-1 replication has provided crucial information for understanding HTLV-1 replication as well as aspects of viral replication that are shared between HTLV-1 and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Here in this review, we discuss the various stages of the virus replication cycle—both foundational knowledge as well as current updates of ongoing research that is important for understanding HTLV-1 molecular pathogenesis as well as in developing novel therapeutic strategies. View Full-Text
Keywords: deltaretrovirus; antiretroviral; lentivirus deltaretrovirus; antiretroviral; lentivirus
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Martin, J.L.; Maldonado, J.O.; Mueller, J.D.; Zhang, W.; Mansky, L.M. Molecular Studies of HTLV-1 Replication: An Update. Viruses 2016, 8, 31.

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