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Viruses 2015, 7(8), 4836-4853; doi:10.3390/v7082847

Bio-Control of Salmonella Enteritidis in Foods Using Bacteriophages

1
Institute of Food Safety, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base of MOST- Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Food Quality and Safety, Nanjing 210014, China
2
Ginling College, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210097, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Abram Aertsen
Received: 29 April 2015 / Revised: 7 August 2015 / Accepted: 17 August 2015 / Published: 24 August 2015
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Abstract

Two lytic phages, vB_SenM-PA13076 (PA13076) and vB_SenM-PC2184 (PC2184), were isolated from chicken sewage and characterized with host strains Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) ATCC13076 and CVCC2184, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that they belonged to the family Myoviridae. The lytic abilities of these two phages in liquid culture showed 104 multiplicity of infection (MOI) was the best in inhibiting bacteria, with PC2184 exhibiting more activity than PA13076. The two phages exhibited broad host range within the genus Salmonella. Phage PA13076 and PC2184 had a lytic effect on 222 (71.4%) and 298 (95.8%) of the 311 epidemic Salmonella isolates, respectively. We tested the effectiveness of phage PA13076 and PC2184 as well as a cocktail combination of both in three different foods (chicken breast, pasteurized whole milk and Chinese cabbage) contaminated with SE. Samples were spiked with 1 × 104 CFU individual SE or a mixture of strains (ATCC13076 and CVCC2184), then treated with 1 × 108 PFU individual phage or a two phage cocktail, and incubated at 4 °C or 25 °C for 5 h. In general, the inhibitory effect of phage and phage cocktail was better at 4 °C than that at 25 °C, whereas the opposite result was observed in Chinese cabbage, and phage cocktail was better than either single phage. A significant reduction in bacterial numbers (1.5–4 log CFU/sample, p < 0.05) was observed in all tested foods. The two phages on the three food samples were relatively stable, especially at 4 ºC, with the phages exhibiting the greatest stability in milk. Our research shows that our phages have potential effectiveness as a bio-control agent of Salmonella in foods. View Full-Text
Keywords: Salmonella Enteritidis (SE); phages; phage cocktail; food; bio-control Salmonella Enteritidis (SE); phages; phage cocktail; food; bio-control
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Bao, H.; Zhang, P.; Zhang, H.; Zhou, Y.; Zhang, L.; Wang, R. Bio-Control of Salmonella Enteritidis in Foods Using Bacteriophages. Viruses 2015, 7, 4836-4853.

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