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Viruses 2015, 7(5), 2654-2667; doi:10.3390/v7052654

Dynamics of Apis mellifera Filamentous Virus (AmFV) Infections in Honey Bees and Relationships with Other Parasites

1
Agroscope, Swiss Bee Research Center, Schwarzenburgstrasse 161, Bern 3003, Switzerland
2
Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala 750 07, Sweden
3
Institute of Bee Health, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, Bern 3001, Switzerland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Sebastian Gisder and Elke Genersch
Received: 31 March 2015 / Revised: 27 April 2015 / Accepted: 20 May 2015 / Published: 22 May 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Honeybee Viruses)
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Abstract

Apis mellifera filamentous virus (AmFV) is a large double stranded DNA virus of honey bees, but its relationship with other parasites and prevalence are poorly known. We analyzed individual honey bees from three colonies at different times post emergence in order to monitor the dynamics of the AmFV gut colonization under natural conditions. Prevalence and loads of microsporidia and trypanosomes were also recorded, as well as five common honey bee RNA viruses. The results show that a high proportion of bees get infected with AmFV during the first week post-emergence (75%) and that AmFV DNA levels remained constant. A similar pattern was observed for microsporidia while trypanosomes seem to require more time to colonize the gut. No significant associations between these three infections were found, but significant positive correlations were observed between AmFV and RNA viruses. In parallel, the prevalence of AmFV in France and Sweden was assessed from pooled honey bee workers. The data indicate that AmFV is almost ubiquitous, and does not seem to follow seasonal patterns, although higher viral loads were significantly detected in spring. A high prevalence of AmFV was also found in winter bees, without obvious impact on overwintering of the colonies. View Full-Text
Keywords: Apis mellifera; filamentous virus; microsporidia; trypanosome; RNA viruses Apis mellifera; filamentous virus; microsporidia; trypanosome; RNA viruses
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Hartmann, U.; Forsgren, E.; Charrière, J.-D.; Neumann, P.; Gauthier, L. Dynamics of Apis mellifera Filamentous Virus (AmFV) Infections in Honey Bees and Relationships with Other Parasites. Viruses 2015, 7, 2654-2667.

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