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Viruses 2015, 7(12), 6412-6423; doi:10.3390/v7122948

Molecular Epidemiology of Human Rhinoviruses and Enteroviruses Highlights Their Diversity in Sub-Saharan Africa

1
Geneva University Hospitals and Medical School, 4 rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil, 1211 Geneva 14, Switzerland
2
Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, Centre Medical Universitraire, 1 rue Michel-Servet, 1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland
3
Amana Regional Referral Hospital, PO box 25411, Dar es Salaam TZ-02, United Republic of Tanzania
4
St-Francis Hospital, PO box 73, Ifakara TZ-16, United Republic of Tanzania
5
Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Socinstrasse 57, Basel 4051, Switzerland
6
Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, 21 rue du Bugnon, Lausanne 1011, Switzerland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: George Belov
Received: 25 September 2015 / Revised: 16 November 2015 / Accepted: 19 November 2015 / Published: 8 December 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Progress in Enterovirus Research)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3603 KB, uploaded 8 December 2015]   |  

Abstract

Human rhinoviruses (HRVs) and enteroviruses (HEVs) belong to the Enterovirus genus and are the most frequent cause of infection worldwide, but data on their molecular epidemiology in Africa are scarce. To understand HRV and HEV molecular epidemiology in this setting, we enrolled febrile pediatric patients participating in a large prospective cohort assessing the causes of fever in Tanzanian children. Naso/oropharyngeal swabs were systematically collected and tested by real-time RT-PCR for HRV and HEV. Viruses from positive samples were sequenced and phylogenetic analyses were then applied to highlight the HRV and HEV types as well as recombinant or divergent strains. Thirty-eight percent (378/1005) of the enrolled children harboured an HRV or HEV infection. Although some types were predominant, many distinct types were co-circulating, including a vaccinal poliovirus, HEV-A71 and HEV-D68. Three HRV-A recombinants were identified: HRV-A36/HRV-A67, HRV-A12/HRV-A67 and HRV-A96/HRV-A61. Four divergent HRV strains were also identified: one HRV-B strain and three HRV-C strains. This is the first prospective study focused on HRV and HEV molecular epidemiology in sub-Saharan Africa. This systematic and thorough large screening with careful clinical data management confirms the wide genomic diversity of these viruses, brings new insights about their evolution and provides data about associated symptoms. View Full-Text
Keywords: picornavirus; rhinovirus; enterovirus; molecular epidemiology; recombinant; new type; children; fever; Tanzania; emergent picornavirus; rhinovirus; enterovirus; molecular epidemiology; recombinant; new type; children; fever; Tanzania; emergent
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

L’Huillier, A.G.; Kaiser, L.; Petty, T.J.; Kilowoko, M.; Kyungu, E.; Hongoa, P.; Vieille, G.; Turin, L.; Genton, B.; D’Acremont, V.; Tapparel, C. Molecular Epidemiology of Human Rhinoviruses and Enteroviruses Highlights Their Diversity in Sub-Saharan Africa. Viruses 2015, 7, 6412-6423.

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