Next Article in Journal
Natural Products as Tools for Defining How Cellular Metabolism Influences Cellular Immune and Inflammatory Function during Chronic Infection
Next Article in Special Issue
Potential for Improving Potency and Specificity of Reovirus Oncolysis with Next-Generation Reovirus Variants
Previous Article in Journal
Fluorescent Protein-Tagged Sindbis Virus E2 Glycoprotein Allows Single Particle Analysis of Virus Budding from Live Cells
Previous Article in Special Issue
Oncolytic Adenovirus: Strategies and Insights for Vector Design and Immuno-Oncolytic Applications
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Viruses 2015, 7(12), 6200-6217; doi:10.3390/v7122921

Stem Cell-Based Cell Carrier for Targeted Oncolytic Virotherapy: Translational Opportunity and Open Questions

The Department of Surgery and the Brain Tumor Center, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
Current address: The Department of Neurological Surgery, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, 303 E Superior St. Chicago IL60611.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: E. Antonio Chiocca and Martine L.M. Lamfers
Received: 14 September 2015 / Revised: 28 October 2015 / Accepted: 3 November 2015 / Published: 27 November 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oncolytic Viruses)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [999 KB, uploaded 27 November 2015]   |  

Abstract

Oncolytic virotherapy for cancer is an innovative therapeutic option where the ability of a virus to promote cell lysis is harnessed and reprogrammed to selectively destroy cancer cells. Such treatment modalities exhibited antitumor activity in preclinical and clinical settings and appear to be well tolerated when tested in clinical trials. However, the clinical success of oncolytic virotherapy has been significantly hampered due to the inability to target systematic metastasis. This is partly due to the inability of the therapeutic virus to survive in the patient circulation, in order to target tumors at distant sites. An early study from various laboratories demonstrated that cells infected with oncolytic virus can protect the therapeutic payload form the host immune system as well as function as factories for virus production and enhance the therapeutic efficacy of oncolytic virus. While a variety of cell lineages possessed potential as cell carriers, copious investigation has established stem cells as a very attractive cell carrier system in oncolytic virotherapy. The ideal cell carrier desire to be susceptible to viral infection as well as support viral infection, maintain immunosuppressive properties to shield the loaded viruses from the host immune system, and most importantly possess an intrinsic tumor homing ability to deliver loaded viruses directly to the site of the metastasis—all qualities stem cells exhibit. In this review, we summarize the recent work in the development of stem cell-based carrier for oncolytic virotherapy, discuss the advantages and disadvantages of a variety of cell carriers, especially focusing on why stem cells have emerged as the leading candidate, and finally propose a future direction for stem cell-based targeted oncolytic virotherapy that involves its establishment as a viable treatment option for cancer patients in the clinical setting. View Full-Text
Keywords: cell carrier; oncolytic virus; stem cell cell carrier; oncolytic virus; stem cell
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Kim, J.; Hall, R.R.; Lesniak, M.S.; Ahmed, A.U. Stem Cell-Based Cell Carrier for Targeted Oncolytic Virotherapy: Translational Opportunity and Open Questions. Viruses 2015, 7, 6200-6217.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Viruses EISSN 1999-4915 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top