Next Article in Journal
HIV-1-Induced Small T Cell Syncytia Can Transfer Virus Particles to Target Cells through Transient Contacts
Next Article in Special Issue
Rapid Detection of Listeria by Bacteriophage Amplification and SERS-Lateral Flow Immunochromatography
Previous Article in Journal
Herpesvirus gB: A Finely Tuned Fusion Machine
Previous Article in Special Issue
Bacteriophage Mediates Efficient Gene Transfer in Combination with Conventional Transfection Reagents
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Viruses 2015, 7(12), 6570-6589; doi:10.3390/v7122958

What Can We Learn from a Metagenomic Analysis of a Georgian Bacteriophage Cocktail?

Center for Biological Sequence Analysis, Department of Systems Biology, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark
National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark
Eliava Institute of Bacteriophages, Microbiology and Virology, 3 Gotua Str., Tbilisi 0160, Georgia
Eliava Biopreparations LTD,3 Gotua Str., Tbilisi 0160, Georgia
Lab 1, The Evergreen State College, Olympia,WA 98505, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Abram Aertsen and Rob Lavigne
Received: 30 September 2015 / Revised: 19 November 2015 / Accepted: 30 November 2015 / Published: 12 December 2015
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [714 KB, uploaded 15 December 2015]   |  


Phage therapy, a practice widespread in Eastern Europe, has untapped potential in the combat against antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections. However, technology transfer to Western medicine is proving challenging. Bioinformatics analysis could help to facilitate this endeavor. In the present study, the Intesti phage cocktail, a key commercial product of the Eliava Institute, Georgia, has been tested on a selection of bacterial strains, sequenced as a metagenomic sample, de novo assembled and analyzed by bioinformatics methods. Furthermore, eight bacterial host strains were infected with the cocktail and the resulting lysates sequenced and compared to the unamplified cocktail. The analysis identified 23 major phage clusters in different abundances in the cocktail, among those clusters related to the ICTV genera T4likevirus, T5likevirus, T7likevirus, Chilikevirus and Twortlikevirus, as well as a cluster that was quite distant to the database sequences and a novel Proteus phage cluster. Examination of the depth of coverage showed the clusters to have different abundances within the cocktail. The cocktail was found to be composed primarily of Myoviridae (35%) and Siphoviridae (32%), with Podoviridae being a minority (15%). No undesirable genes were found. View Full-Text
Keywords: phage therapy; Eliava Intestiphage; whole genome sequence analysis; metagenomics phage therapy; Eliava Intestiphage; whole genome sequence analysis; metagenomics

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

  • Supplementary File 1:

    default (PDF, 167 KB)

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Zschach, H.; Joensen, K.G.; Lindhard, B.; Lund, O.; Goderdzishvili, M.; Chkonia, I.; Jgenti, G.; Kvatadze, N.; Alavidze, Z.; Kutter, E.M.; Hasman, H.; Larsen, M.V. What Can We Learn from a Metagenomic Analysis of a Georgian Bacteriophage Cocktail? Viruses 2015, 7, 6570-6589.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Viruses EISSN 1999-4915 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top