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Viruses 2015, 7(10), 5619-5631; doi:10.3390/v7102886

Exposure to West Nile Virus Increases Bacterial Diversity and Immune Gene Expression in Culex pipiens

1
Griffin Laboratory, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Slingerlands, NY 12159, USA
2
Wadsworth Center Bioinformatics Core, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY 12222, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Robert B. Tesh, Bethany Bolling, Scott C. Weaver and Nikolaos Vasilakis
Received: 24 June 2015 / Revised: 23 September 2015 / Accepted: 15 October 2015 / Published: 27 October 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of the Insect Microbiome on Arbovirus Transmission)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2057 KB, uploaded 27 October 2015]   |  

Abstract

Complex interactions between microbial residents of mosquitoes and arboviruses are likely to influence many aspects of vectorial capacity and could potentially have profound effects on patterns of arbovirus transmission. Such interactions have not been well studied for West Nile virus (WNV; Flaviviridae, Flavivirus) and Culex spp. mosquitoes. We utilized next-generation sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA bacterial genes derived from Culex pipiens Linnaeus following WNV exposure and/or infection and compared bacterial populations and broad immune responses to unexposed mosquitoes. Our results demonstrate that WNV infection increases the diversity of bacterial populations and is associated with up-regulation of classical invertebrate immune pathways including RNA interference (RNAi), Toll, and Jak-STAT (Janus kinase-Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription). In addition, WNV exposure alone, without the establishment of infection, results in similar alterations to microbial and immune signatures, although to a lesser extent. Multiple bacterial genera were found in greater abundance inWNV-exposed and/or infected mosquitoes, yet the most consistent and notable was the genus Serratia. View Full-Text
Keywords: West Nile virus; arbovirus; microbiome; Culex mosquitoes; invertebrate immunity West Nile virus; arbovirus; microbiome; Culex mosquitoes; invertebrate immunity
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Zink, S.D.; Van Slyke, G.A.; Palumbo, M.J.; Kramer, L.D.; Ciota, A.T. Exposure to West Nile Virus Increases Bacterial Diversity and Immune Gene Expression in Culex pipiens. Viruses 2015, 7, 5619-5631.

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