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Viruses 2014, 6(8), 3363-3376; doi:10.3390/v6083363
Review

Canine Enteric Coronaviruses: Emerging Viral Pathogens with Distinct Recombinant Spike Proteins

1
, 2
 and 1,*
Received: 31 March 2014; in revised form: 11 August 2014 / Accepted: 15 August 2014 / Published: 22 August 2014
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
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Abstract: Canine enteric coronavirus (CCoV) is an alphacoronavirus infecting dogs that is closely related to enteric coronaviruses of cats and pigs. While CCoV has traditionally caused mild gastro-intestinal clinical signs, there are increasing reports of lethal CCoV infections in dogs, with evidence of both gastrointestinal and systemic viral dissemination. Consequently, CCoV is now considered to be an emerging infectious disease of dogs. In addition to the two known serotypes of CCoV, novel recombinant variants of CCoV have been found containing spike protein N-terminal domains (NTDs) that are closely related to those of feline and porcine strains. The increase in disease severity in dogs and the emergence of novel CCoVs can be attributed to the high level of recombination within the spike gene that can occur during infection by more than one CCoV type in the same host.
Keywords: canine coronavirus; viral pathogenesis; spike protein; recombination canine coronavirus; viral pathogenesis; spike protein; recombination
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Licitra, B.N.; Duhamel, G.E.; Whittaker, G.R. Canine Enteric Coronaviruses: Emerging Viral Pathogens with Distinct Recombinant Spike Proteins. Viruses 2014, 6, 3363-3376.

AMA Style

Licitra BN, Duhamel GE, Whittaker GR. Canine Enteric Coronaviruses: Emerging Viral Pathogens with Distinct Recombinant Spike Proteins. Viruses. 2014; 6(8):3363-3376.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Licitra, Beth N.; Duhamel, Gerald E.; Whittaker, Gary R. 2014. "Canine Enteric Coronaviruses: Emerging Viral Pathogens with Distinct Recombinant Spike Proteins." Viruses 6, no. 8: 3363-3376.


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