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Viruses 2014, 6(8), 3129-3158; doi:10.3390/v6083129

Challenges in Mucosal HIV Vaccine Development: Lessons from Non-Human Primate Models

Vaccine Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 June 2014 / Revised: 21 July 2014 / Accepted: 23 July 2014 / Published: 15 August 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue AIDS Vaccine 2014)
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An efficacious HIV vaccine is urgently needed to curb the AIDS pandemic. The modest protection elicited in the phase III clinical vaccine trial in Thailand provided hope that this goal might be achieved. However, new approaches are necessary for further advances. As HIV is transmitted primarily across mucosal surfaces, development of immunity at these sites is critical, but few clinical vaccine trials have targeted these sites or assessed vaccine-elicited mucosal immune responses. Pre-clinical studies in non-human primate models have facilitated progress in mucosal vaccine development by evaluating candidate vaccine approaches, developing methodologies for collecting and assessing mucosal samples, and providing clues to immune correlates of protective immunity for further investigation. In this review we have focused on non-human primate studies which have provided important information for future design of vaccine strategies, targeting of mucosal inductive sites, and assessment of mucosal immunity. Knowledge gained in these studies will inform mucosal vaccine design and evaluation in human clinical trials.
Keywords: HIV vaccine; mucosal immunity; non-human primate HIV vaccine; mucosal immunity; non-human primate
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Tuero, I.; Robert-Guroff, M. Challenges in Mucosal HIV Vaccine Development: Lessons from Non-Human Primate Models. Viruses 2014, 6, 3129-3158.

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