Next Article in Journal
The Emerging Profile of Cross-Resistance among the Nonnucleoside HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors
Previous Article in Journal
Coat as a Dagger: The Use of Capsid Proteins to Perforate Membranes during Non-Enveloped DNA Viruses Trafficking
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Viruses 2014, 6(8), 2938-2959; doi:10.3390/v6082938

Identification of Cis-Acting Elements on Positive-Strand Subgenomic mRNA Required for the Synthesis of Negative-Strand Counterpart in Bovine Coronavirus

Graduate Institute of Veterinary Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, National Chung-Hsing University, Taichung 40227, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 June 2014 / Revised: 12 July 2014 / Accepted: 15 July 2014 / Published: 30 July 2014
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1264 KB, uploaded 12 May 2015]   |  

Abstract

It has been demonstrated that, in addition to genomic RNA, sgmRNA is able to serve as a template for the synthesis of the negative-strand [(−)-strand] complement. However, the cis-acting elements on the positive-strand [(+)-strand] sgmRNA required for (−)-strand sgmRNA synthesis have not yet been systematically identified. In this study, we employed real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction to analyze the cis-acting elements on bovine coronavirus (BCoV) sgmRNA 7 required for the synthesis of its (−)-strand counterpart by deletion mutagenesis. The major findings are as follows. (1) Deletion of the 5'-terminal leader sequence on sgmRNA 7 decreased the synthesis of the (−)-strand sgmRNA complement. (2) Deletions of the 3' untranslated region (UTR) bulged stem-loop showed no effect on (−)-strand sgmRNA synthesis; however, deletion of the 3' UTR pseudoknot decreased the yield of (−)-strand sgmRNA. (3) Nucleotides positioned from −15 to −34 of the sgmRNA 7 3'-terminal region are required for efficient (−)-strand sgmRNA synthesis. (4) Nucleotide species at the 3'-most position (−1) of sgmRNA 7 is correlated to the efficiency of (−)-strand sgmRNA synthesis. These results together suggest, in principle, that the 5'- and 3'-terminal sequences on sgmRNA 7 harbor cis-acting elements are critical for efficient (−)-strand sgmRNA synthesis in BCoV. View Full-Text
Keywords: coronavirus; cis-acting element; subgenomic mRNA; negative-strand RNA synthesis coronavirus; cis-acting element; subgenomic mRNA; negative-strand RNA synthesis
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Supplementary material

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Yeh, P.-Y.; Wu, H.-Y. Identification of Cis-Acting Elements on Positive-Strand Subgenomic mRNA Required for the Synthesis of Negative-Strand Counterpart in Bovine Coronavirus. Viruses 2014, 6, 2938-2959.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Viruses EISSN 1999-4915 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top