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Viruses 2014, 6(7), 2880-2898; doi:10.3390/v6072880

Full-Length Genome Analyses of Two New Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) Strains from Mustached Monkeys (C. Cephus) in Gabon Illustrate a Complex Evolutionary History among the SIVmus/mon/gsn Lineage

1
UMI 233, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD) and University of Montpellier I, Montpellier 34396, France
2
Centre International de Recherches Médicales de Franceville, Franceville BP 769, Gabon
3
Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0ES, UK
Current affiliation: Institut Pasteur du Cambodge, Phnom-Penh BP 12201, Kingdom of Cambodia.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 May 2014 / Revised: 4 July 2014 / Accepted: 8 July 2014 / Published: 22 July 2014
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
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Abstract

The Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) mus/mon/gsn lineage is a descendant of one of the precursor viruses to the HIV-1/SIVcpz/gor viral lineage. SIVmus and SIVgsn were sequenced from mustached and greater spot nosed monkeys in Cameroon and SIVmon from mona monkeys in Cameroon and Nigeria. In order to further document the genetic diversity of SIVmus, we analyzed two full-length genomes of new strains identified in Gabon. The whole genomes obtained showed the expected reading frames for gag, pol, vif, vpr, tat, rev, env, nef, and also for a vpu gene. Analyses showed that the Gabonese SIVmus strains were closely related and formed a monophyletic clade within the SIVmus/mon/gsn lineage. Nonetheless, within this lineage, the position of both new SIVmus differed according to the gene analyzed. In pol and nef gene, phylogenetic topologies suggested different evolutions for each of the two new SIVmus strains whereas in the other nucleic fragments studied, their positions fluctuated between SIVmon, SIVmus-1, and SIVgsn. In addition, in C1 domain of env, we identified an insertion of seven amino acids characteristic for the SIVmus/mon/gsn and HIV‑1/SIVcpz/SIVgor lineages. Our results show a high genetic diversity of SIVmus in mustached monkeys and suggest cross-species transmission events and recombination within SIVmus/mon/gsn lineage. Additionally, in Central Africa, hunters continue to be exposed to these simian viruses, and this represents a potential threat to humans. View Full-Text
Keywords: SIV; lentivirus; non-human primate; molecular phylogeny; evolution; bushmeat; cross-species transmission; Gabon SIV; lentivirus; non-human primate; molecular phylogeny; evolution; bushmeat; cross-species transmission; Gabon
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Liégeois, F.; Schmidt, F.; Boué, V.; Butel, C.; Mouacha, F.; Ngari, P.; Ondo, B.M.; Leroy, E.; Heeney, J.L.; Delaporte, E.; Peeters, M.; Rouet, F. Full-Length Genome Analyses of Two New Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) Strains from Mustached Monkeys (C. Cephus) in Gabon Illustrate a Complex Evolutionary History among the SIVmus/mon/gsn Lineage. Viruses 2014, 6, 2880-2898.

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