Next Article in Journal
Mechanism of West Nile Virus Neuroinvasion: A Critical Appraisal
Previous Article in Journal
Prevalence and Genotyping of High Risk Human Papillomavirus in Cervical Cancer Samples from Punjab, Pakistan
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Viruses 2014, 6(7), 2778-2795; doi:10.3390/v6072778

Identification of Luteolin as Enterovirus 71 and Coxsackievirus A16 Inhibitors through Reporter Viruses and Cell Viability-Based Screening

1,2,†
,
1,2,3,†
,
1,2
,
1
,
1,2
,
1
,
1,4
,
1,2
,
1,2
,
1,2
,
1,2
,
1
,
1,2,3
,
4,* and 1,2,3,*
1
School of Life Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun 130012, China
2
National Engineering Laboratory for AIDS Vaccine, Jilin University, Changchun 130012, China
3
Key Laboratory for Molecular Enzymology and Engineering, The Ministry of Education, Jilin University, Changchun 130012, China
4
College of Basic Medical Sciences, Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116000, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 May 2014 / Revised: 28 June 2014 / Accepted: 7 July 2014 / Published: 17 July 2014
(This article belongs to the Section Antivirals & Vaccines)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1423 KB, uploaded 12 May 2015]   |  

Abstract

Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common pediatric illness mainly caused by infection with enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CA16). The frequent HFMD outbreaks have become a serious public health problem. Currently, no vaccine or antiviral drug for EV71/CA16 infections has been approved. In this study, a two-step screening platform consisting of reporter virus-based assays and cell viability‑based assays was developed to identify potential inhibitors of EV71/CA16 infection. Two types of reporter viruses, a pseudovirus containing luciferase-encoding RNA replicons encapsidated by viral capsid proteins and a full-length reporter virus containing enhanced green fluorescent protein, were used for primary screening of 400 highly purified natural compounds. Thereafter, a cell viability-based secondary screen was performed for the identified hits to confirm their antiviral activities. Three compounds (luteolin, galangin, and quercetin) were identified, among which luteolin exhibited the most potent inhibition of viral infection. In the cell viability assay and plaque reduction assay, luteolin showed similar 50% effective concentration (EC50) values of about 10 μM. Luteolin targeted the post-attachment stage of EV71 and CA16 infection by inhibiting viral RNA replication. This study suggests that luteolin may serve as a lead compound to develop potent anti-EV71 and CA16 drugs. View Full-Text
Keywords: enterovirus 71; coxsackievirus A16; luteolin; reporter virus; high‑throughput assay; antiviral drug discovery enterovirus 71; coxsackievirus A16; luteolin; reporter virus; high‑throughput assay; antiviral drug discovery
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Supplementary material

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Xu, L.; Su, W.; Jin, J.; Chen, J.; Li, X.; Zhang, X.; Sun, M.; Sun, S.; Fan, P.; An, D.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, X.; Kong, W.; Ma, T.; Jiang, C. Identification of Luteolin as Enterovirus 71 and Coxsackievirus A16 Inhibitors through Reporter Viruses and Cell Viability-Based Screening. Viruses 2014, 6, 2778-2795.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Viruses EISSN 1999-4915 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top