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HIV-1 Latency: An Update of Molecular Mechanisms and Therapeutic Strategies
Viruses 2014, 6(4), 1837-1860; doi:10.3390/v6041837
Review

HIV-1 Latency in Monocytes/Macrophages

,
 and
*
UPRES EA4266, SFR FED 4234, Pathogens and Inflammation Laboratory, Department of Virology, CHRU Besançon, University of Franche-Comte, F-25030 Besançon, France
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 January 2014 / Revised: 11 March 2014 / Accepted: 28 March 2014 / Published: 22 April 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue HIV Latency)
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Abstract

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) targets CD4+ T cells and cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. HIV pathogenesis is characterized by the depletion of T lymphocytes and by the presence of a population of cells in which latency has been established called the HIV-1 reservoir. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has significantly improved the life of HIV-1 infected patients. However, complete eradication of HIV-1 from infected individuals is not possible without targeting latent sources of infection. HIV-1 establishes latent infection in resting CD4+ T cells and findings indicate that latency can also be established in the cells of monocyte/macrophage lineage. Monocyte/macrophage lineage includes among others, monocytes, macrophages and brain resident macrophages. These cells are relatively more resistant to apoptosis induced by HIV-1, thus are important stable hideouts of the virus. Much effort has been made in the direction of eliminating HIV-1 resting CD4+ T-cell reservoirs. However, it is impossible to achieve a cure for HIV-1 without considering these neglected latent reservoirs, the cells of monocyte/macrophage lineage. In this review we will describe our current understanding of the mechanism of latency in monocyte/macrophage lineage and how such cells can be specifically eliminated from the infected host.
Keywords: HIV-1; latency; monocytes; macrophages; microglial cells HIV-1; latency; monocytes; macrophages; microglial cells
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).
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Kumar, A.; Abbas, W.; Herbein, G. HIV-1 Latency in Monocytes/Macrophages. Viruses 2014, 6, 1837-1860.

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