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Viruses 2014, 6(4), 1837-1860; doi:10.3390/v6041837
Review

HIV-1 Latency in Monocytes/Macrophages

,
 and *
Received: 2 January 2014; in revised form: 11 March 2014 / Accepted: 28 March 2014 / Published: 22 April 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue HIV Latency)
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Abstract: Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) targets CD4+ T cells and cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. HIV pathogenesis is characterized by the depletion of T lymphocytes and by the presence of a population of cells in which latency has been established called the HIV-1 reservoir. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has significantly improved the life of HIV-1 infected patients. However, complete eradication of HIV-1 from infected individuals is not possible without targeting latent sources of infection. HIV-1 establishes latent infection in resting CD4+ T cells and findings indicate that latency can also be established in the cells of monocyte/macrophage lineage. Monocyte/macrophage lineage includes among others, monocytes, macrophages and brain resident macrophages. These cells are relatively more resistant to apoptosis induced by HIV-1, thus are important stable hideouts of the virus. Much effort has been made in the direction of eliminating HIV-1 resting CD4+ T-cell reservoirs. However, it is impossible to achieve a cure for HIV-1 without considering these neglected latent reservoirs, the cells of monocyte/macrophage lineage. In this review we will describe our current understanding of the mechanism of latency in monocyte/macrophage lineage and how such cells can be specifically eliminated from the infected host.
Keywords: HIV-1; latency; monocytes; macrophages; microglial cells HIV-1; latency; monocytes; macrophages; microglial cells
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Kumar, A.; Abbas, W.; Herbein, G. HIV-1 Latency in Monocytes/Macrophages. Viruses 2014, 6, 1837-1860.

AMA Style

Kumar A, Abbas W, Herbein G. HIV-1 Latency in Monocytes/Macrophages. Viruses. 2014; 6(4):1837-1860.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kumar, Amit; Abbas, Wasim; Herbein, Georges. 2014. "HIV-1 Latency in Monocytes/Macrophages." Viruses 6, no. 4: 1837-1860.


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