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Viruses 2014, 6(4), 1715-1758; doi:10.3390/v6041715

HIV-1 Latency: An Update of Molecular Mechanisms and Therapeutic Strategies

*  and
Department of Infectious, Parasitic and Immune-Mediated Diseases, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Viale Regina Elena, 299, 00161 Rome, Italy
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 January 2014 / Revised: 18 March 2014 / Accepted: 20 March 2014 / Published: 14 April 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue HIV Latency)
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The major obstacle towards HIV-1 eradication is the life-long persistence of the virus in reservoirs of latently infected cells. In these cells the proviral DNA is integrated in the host’s genome but it does not actively replicate, becoming invisible to the host immune system and unaffected by existing antiviral drugs. Rebound of viremia and recovery of systemic infection that follows interruption of therapy, necessitates life-long treatments with problems of compliance, toxicity, and untenable costs, especially in developing countries where the infection hits worst. Extensive research efforts have led to the proposal and preliminary testing of several anti-latency compounds, however, overall, eradication strategies have had, so far, limited clinical success while posing several risks for patients. This review will briefly summarize the more recent advances in the elucidation of mechanisms that regulates the establishment/maintenance of latency and therapeutic strategies currently under evaluation in order to eradicate HIV persistence.
Keywords: HIV; latency; mechanisms of latency; reactivating compounds; immune therapy HIV; latency; mechanisms of latency; reactivating compounds; immune therapy
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Battistini, A.; Sgarbanti, M. HIV-1 Latency: An Update of Molecular Mechanisms and Therapeutic Strategies. Viruses 2014, 6, 1715-1758.

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