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Viruses 2014, 6(3), 1424-1441; doi:10.3390/v6031424
Article

IFN-Dependent and -Independent Reduction in West Nile Virus Infectivity in Human Dermal Fibroblasts

1,2
 and
1,2,*
1 Maryland Pathogen Research Institute, College Park, MD 20742, USA 2 Department of Cell Biology and Molecular Genetics University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 January 2014 / Revised: 5 March 2014 / Accepted: 7 March 2014 / Published: 24 March 2014
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
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Abstract

Although dermal fibroblasts are one of the first cell types exposed to West Nile virus (WNV) during a blood meal by an infected mosquito, little is known about WNV replication within this cell type. Here, we demonstrate that neuroinvasive, WNV-New York (WNV-NY), and nonneuroinvasive, WNV-Australia (WNV-AUS60) strains are able to infect and replicate in primary human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs). However, WNV-AUS60 replication and spread within HDFs was reduced compared to that of WNV-NY due to an interferon (IFN)-independent reduction in viral infectivity early in infection. Additionally, replication of both strains was constrained late in infection by an IFN-β-dependent reduction in particle infectivity. Overall, our data indicates that human dermal fibroblasts are capable of supporting WNV replication; however, the low infectivity of particles produced from HDFs late in infection suggests that this cell type likely plays a limited role as a viral reservoir in vivo.
Keywords: West Nile virus; interferon; human dermal fibroblast; antiviral response; intracellular innate immunity West Nile virus; interferon; human dermal fibroblast; antiviral response; intracellular innate immunity
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Hoover, L.I.; Fredericksen, B.L. IFN-Dependent and -Independent Reduction in West Nile Virus Infectivity in Human Dermal Fibroblasts. Viruses 2014, 6, 1424-1441.

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