Viruses 2014, 6(2), 606-623; doi:10.3390/v6020606
Review

Clinical Manifestations and Outcomes of West Nile Virus Infection

National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
Received: 30 October 2013; in revised form: 20 January 2014 / Accepted: 21 January 2014 / Published: 6 February 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue West Nile Virus)
PDF Full-text Download PDF Full-Text [1369 KB, uploaded 6 February 2014 09:32 CET]
Abstract: Since the emergence of West Nile virus (WNV) in North America in 1999, understanding of the clinical features, spectrum of illness and eventual functional outcomes of human illness has increased tremendously. Most human infections with WNV remain clinically silent. Among those persons developing symptomatic illness, most develop a self-limited febrile illness. More severe illness with WNV (West Nile neuroinvasive disease, WNND) is manifested as meningitis, encephalitis or an acute anterior (polio) myelitis. These manifestations are generally more prevalent in older persons or those with immunosuppression. In the future, a more thorough understanding of the long-term physical, cognitive and functional outcomes of persons recovering from WNV illness will be important in understanding the overall illness burden.
Keywords: West Nile virus; meningitis; encephalitis; poliomyelitis; outcomes

Article Statistics

Load and display the download statistics.

Citations to this Article

Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Sejvar, J.J. Clinical Manifestations and Outcomes of West Nile Virus Infection. Viruses 2014, 6, 606-623.

AMA Style

Sejvar JJ. Clinical Manifestations and Outcomes of West Nile Virus Infection. Viruses. 2014; 6(2):606-623.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sejvar, James J. 2014. "Clinical Manifestations and Outcomes of West Nile Virus Infection." Viruses 6, no. 2: 606-623.

Viruses EISSN 1999-4915 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert