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Viruses 2014, 6(2), 606-623; doi:10.3390/v6020606
Review

Clinical Manifestations and Outcomes of West Nile Virus Infection

Received: 30 October 2013 / Revised: 20 January 2014 / Accepted: 21 January 2014 / Published: 6 February 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue West Nile Virus)
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Abstract

Since the emergence of West Nile virus (WNV) in North America in 1999, understanding of the clinical features, spectrum of illness and eventual functional outcomes of human illness has increased tremendously. Most human infections with WNV remain clinically silent. Among those persons developing symptomatic illness, most develop a self-limited febrile illness. More severe illness with WNV (West Nile neuroinvasive disease, WNND) is manifested as meningitis, encephalitis or an acute anterior (polio) myelitis. These manifestations are generally more prevalent in older persons or those with immunosuppression. In the future, a more thorough understanding of the long-term physical, cognitive and functional outcomes of persons recovering from WNV illness will be important in understanding the overall illness burden.
Keywords: West Nile virus; meningitis; encephalitis; poliomyelitis; outcomes West Nile virus; meningitis; encephalitis; poliomyelitis; outcomes
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Sejvar, J.J. Clinical Manifestations and Outcomes of West Nile Virus Infection. Viruses 2014, 6, 606-623.

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