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Viruses 2014, 6(10), 4047-4079; doi:10.3390/v6104047

Human Viruses and Cancer

1
Unidad de Investigación en Virología y Cáncer, Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Dr. Márquez 162, Col. Doctores, C.P. 06720. México D.F., Mexico
2
Programa de Doctorado en Ciencias Biomédicas, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico. Av. Universidad 3000, Col. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, C.U., C.P. 04510 México D.F., México
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 August 2014 / Revised: 18 September 2014 / Accepted: 13 October 2014 / Published: 23 October 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tumour Viruses)
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Abstract

The first human tumor virus was discovered in the middle of the last century by Anthony Epstein, Bert Achong and Yvonne Barr in African pediatric patients with Burkitt’s lymphoma. To date, seven viruses -EBV, KSHV, high-risk HPV, MCPV, HBV, HCV and HTLV1- have been consistently linked to different types of human cancer, and infections are estimated to account for up to 20% of all cancer cases worldwide. Viral oncogenic mechanisms generally include: generation of genomic instability, increase in the rate of cell proliferation, resistance to apoptosis, alterations in DNA repair mechanisms and cell polarity changes, which often coexist with evasion mechanisms of the antiviral immune response. Viral agents also indirectly contribute to the development of cancer mainly through immunosuppression or chronic inflammation, but also through chronic antigenic stimulation. There is also evidence that viruses can modulate the malignant properties of an established tumor. In the present work, causation criteria for viruses and cancer will be described, as well as the viral agents that comply with these criteria in human tumors, their epidemiological and biological characteristics, the molecular mechanisms by which they induce cellular transformation and their associated cancers. View Full-Text
Keywords: infectious cancer; human oncogenic viruses; transforming mechanisms infectious cancer; human oncogenic viruses; transforming mechanisms
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Morales-Sánchez, A.; Fuentes-Pananá, E.M. Human Viruses and Cancer. Viruses 2014, 6, 4047-4079.

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