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Viruses 2013, 5(4), 1075-1098; doi:10.3390/v5041075

Foamy Virus Budding and Release

, 1,2,†
 and 1,2,*
Received: 4 February 2013 / Revised: 25 March 2013 / Accepted: 29 March 2013 / Published: 10 April 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Progress in Foamy Virus (FV) Research)
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Abstract: Like all other viruses, a successful egress of functional particles from infected cells is a prerequisite for foamy virus (FV) spread within the host. The budding process of FVs involves steps, which are shared by other retroviruses, such as interaction of the capsid protein with components of cellular vacuolar protein sorting (Vps) machinery via late domains identified in some FV capsid proteins. Additionally, there are features of the FV budding strategy quite unique to the spumaretroviruses. This includes secretion of non-infectious subviral particles and a strict dependence on capsid-glycoprotein interaction for release of infectious virions from the cells. Virus-like particle release is not possible since FV capsid proteins lack a membrane-targeting signal. It is noteworthy that in experimental systems, the important capsid-glycoprotein interaction could be bypassed by fusing heterologous membrane-targeting signals to the capsid protein, thus enabling glycoprotein-independent egress. Aside from that, other systems have been developed to enable envelopment of FV capsids by heterologous Env proteins. In this review article, we will summarize the current knowledge on FV budding, the viral components and their domains involved as well as alternative and artificial ways to promote budding of FV particle structures, a feature important for alteration of target tissue tropism of FV-based gene transfer systems.
Keywords: foamy virus; budding; virus egress; capsid-glycoprotein interaction; pseudotyping; subviral particles foamy virus; budding; virus egress; capsid-glycoprotein interaction; pseudotyping; subviral particles
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Hütter, S.; Zurnic, I.; Lindemann, D. Foamy Virus Budding and Release. Viruses 2013, 5, 1075-1098.

AMA Style

Hütter S, Zurnic I, Lindemann D. Foamy Virus Budding and Release. Viruses. 2013; 5(4):1075-1098.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hütter, Sylvia; Zurnic, Irena; Lindemann, Dirk. 2013. "Foamy Virus Budding and Release." Viruses 5, no. 4: 1075-1098.

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