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Early Events in Foamy Virus—Host Interaction and Intracellular Trafficking
Institute of Virology, Medical Faculty―Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universität Dresden, Fetscherstr. 74, Dresden 01307, Germany
DFG-Center for Regenerative Therapies Dresden (CRTD)—Cluster of Excellence, Biotechnology Center, Technische Universität Dresden, Fetscherstr. 105, Dresden 01307, Germany
These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 February 2013; in revised form: 28 March 2013 / Accepted: 29 March 2013 / Published: 8 April 2013
Abstract: Here we review viral and cellular requirements for entry and intracellular trafficking of foamy viruses (FVs) resulting in integration of viral sequences into the host cell genome. The virus encoded glycoprotein harbors all essential viral determinants, which are involved in absorption to the host membrane and triggering the uptake of virus particles. However, only recently light was shed on some details of FV’s interaction with its host cell receptor(s). Latest studies indicate glycosaminoglycans of cellular proteoglycans, particularly heparan sulfate, to be of utmost importance. In a species-specific manner FVs encounter endogenous machineries of the target cell, which are in some cases exploited for fusion and further egress into the cytosol. Mostly triggered by pH-dependent endocytosis, viral and cellular membranes fuse and release naked FV capsids into the cytoplasm. Intact FV capsids are then shuttled along microtubules and are found to accumulate nearby the centrosome where they can remain in a latent state for extended time periods. Depending on the host cell cycle status, FV capsids finally disassemble and, by still poorly characterized mechanisms, the preintegration complex gets access to the host cell chromatin. Host cell mitosis finally allows for viral genome integration, ultimately starting a new round of viral replication.
Keywords: foamy virus; entry; trafficking
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Berka, U.; Hamann, M.V.; Lindemann, D. Early Events in Foamy Virus—Host Interaction and Intracellular Trafficking. Viruses 2013, 5, 1055-1074.
Berka U, Hamann MV, Lindemann D. Early Events in Foamy Virus—Host Interaction and Intracellular Trafficking. Viruses. 2013; 5(4):1055-1074.
Berka, Ursula; Hamann, Martin V.; Lindemann, Dirk. 2013. "Early Events in Foamy Virus—Host Interaction and Intracellular Trafficking." Viruses 5, no. 4: 1055-1074.