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Nuclear Trafficking of Retroviral RNAs and Gag Proteins during Late Steps of Replication
Division of Infectious Diseases and Epidemiology, Department of Medicine, Penn State College of Medicine, 500 University Drive, Hershey, PA 17033, USA
Department of Microbiology & Immunology, Penn State College of Medicine, 500 University Drive, Hershey, PA 17033, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 October 2013; in revised form: 31 October 2013 / Accepted: 12 November 2013 / Published: 18 November 2013
Abstract: Retroviruses exploit nuclear trafficking machinery at several distinct stages in their replication cycles. In this review, we will focus primarily on nucleocytoplasmic trafficking events that occur after the completion of reverse transcription and proviral integration. First, we will discuss nuclear export of unspliced viral RNA transcripts, which serves two essential roles: as the mRNA template for the translation of viral structural proteins and as the genome for encapsidation into virions. These full-length viral RNAs must overcome the cell’s quality control measures to leave the nucleus by co-opting host factors or encoding viral proteins to mediate nuclear export of unspliced viral RNAs. Next, we will summarize the most recent findings on the mechanisms of Gag nuclear trafficking and discuss potential roles for nuclear localization of Gag proteins in retrovirus replication.
Keywords: nuclear entry; nuclear export; nucleocytoplasmic trafficking; virus assembly; viral RNA packaging; retroviral Gag protein; HIV-1 Rev protein; Rous sarcoma virus; retroviruses
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Stake, M.S.; Bann, D.V.; Kaddis, R.J.; Parent, L.J. Nuclear Trafficking of Retroviral RNAs and Gag Proteins during Late Steps of Replication. Viruses 2013, 5, 2767-2795.
Stake MS, Bann DV, Kaddis RJ, Parent LJ. Nuclear Trafficking of Retroviral RNAs and Gag Proteins during Late Steps of Replication. Viruses. 2013; 5(11):2767-2795.
Stake, Matthew S.; Bann, Darrin V.; Kaddis, Rebecca J.; Parent, Leslie J. 2013. "Nuclear Trafficking of Retroviral RNAs and Gag Proteins during Late Steps of Replication." Viruses 5, no. 11: 2767-2795.